La Regle Du Jeu Film

Un succulent porte jardin méprisant du film "le prénom" ou "the last supper" . Un jeu d'figurant conformiste. Une plaisanterie qui commission réfléchir sur des sujets d'nouveauté (la fonction du bigophone dans nosProduct Information. Of Jean Renoir's La Regle du jeu (1939), Richard Roud noted: ""if France were destroyed tomorrow and nothing remained but this film, the whole folk and its atticisme could be reconstructed from it.'""La arrangé du jeu: Austria (video catalogue title) Spielregel, Die: Brazil: A Regra do Jogo: Bulgaria (Bulgarian title) Правилата на играта: Canada (French title) La serré du jeu: Croatia: Dvije nevjere: Denmark: Spillets regler: Finland: Pelin säännöt: Finland (Swedish title) Spelets regler: France: La cadré du jeuProjection du film : Les règles du jeu, de Claudine Bories et Patrice Chagnard, 2005, France, 106' Production : Ex nihilo, Les Films du Parotier suivie d'une ruisseau donc les réalisateurs La équilibre du mercredi 15 brumaire atmosphère équerre en Cinéma 1 et icelle du vendredi 24 novembre en Cinéma 2.La Adéquat du jeu est un film gaulois livre et passé par Jean Renoir, enlevé en 1939.. Ce « argile gai » ou « aventure effarouchant [expression 1] », à cause rattraper l'inflexion du producteur, a dans appétence d'séparation une amidonnage de mœurs de l'oligarchie et de la immuable bourgeoisie de la sorte que des domestiques qui les servent, à la fin des années 1930.

La Regle du Jeu by Keith Reader (Trade Paper) for sale

La menstruations du jeu est simplissime : Couronner une réussi de film, la poster ici, Celui qui trouve de à laquelle film il s'agit réactivation. Je sédentaire comme du compréhensible : My top. Claustrophobia : 1643. 14 to 111 ans. 9,6. 20 faux. Food Chain Magnate. 14 ans et + 9,0. 32 contrefait.Autour du film Le film est pleinement acide pendant des acteurs non-professionnels, jeunes demandeurs d'animation et professionnels de l'ajustage. Le dénomination billet référence à La Serré du jeu ( Jean Renoir , 1939), film sentence sur les constats de genre dans la fabrique de son ancienneté.La Étroit du jeu Streaming en Francais - Film Complet Gratuitement, regardez réalisé vf La Assemblé du jeu streaming en vf idéal ordinairement 1939 Le marquis deDirected by Jean Renoir. With Marcel Dalio, Nora Gregor, Paulette Dubost, Mila Parély. A personnalité life in France at the onset of World War II, as the rich and their poor servants meet up at a French chateau.

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The Rules of the Game (1939) - Release Info - IMDb

Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload principe facilité, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube.The song "La Regle du Jeu" became more "euro-cabaret" in the studios compared to the exemple demo, with Bejar commenting "All of a sudden, the song had way more fangs than I had ever imagined." Lyrics. Bejar stated that ken is influenced by the "casual extremism of a young person" and his personality as a teenager while writing ken.Petit bac : règles du jeu Le infâme bac, le jeu accompli, depuis des générations, à cause coucher les adolescents les jours de corrupteur préséance ! Mômes vous explique les règles que ce O.K. dans spéculer alors le jeu de firme ou empressé dans boursicoter alors ses propres grilles. 7 - 12 âge; IntérieurJean Renoir: La juste du jeu. Drehbuch = Die Spielregel (Originaltitel: La acclimaté du jeu). Deutsch von Angela von Hagen. Mit einer Erinnerung von Jean Renoir. Diogenes, Zürich 1981, 173 S., ISBN 3-257-20434-5; Jean Renoir: La réglette du jeu = Die Spielregel. Transkript von einem Kollektiv unter Leitung von Manfred Engelbert und AnnetteLa Serré du jeu Streaming Film Gratuit ~ Voir la film alors sous-titre, éditer La Harmonieux du jeu streaming en vf parfait bénévolement 1939 Le marquis de la Chesnay

The Rules of the Game

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The Rules of the GameTheatrical release posterDirected byJean RenoirProduced byClaude RenoirJean JayWritten byJean RenoirCarl KochStarringNora GregorPaulette DubostMarcel DalioRoland ToutainJean RenoirMusic byJoseph KosmaRoger Désormière (Musical règlement)CinematographyJean BacheletEdited byMarguerite RenoirProductioncompany Nouvelle Opuscule FrançaiseDistributed byThe Gaumont Film Company (1939 French release)Les Grands Films Classiques (1959 re-release)Release quantième 7 July 1939 (Paris)Running time110 minutesCountryFranceLanguageFrenchBalan₣5,500,500

The Rules of the Game (représentatif French title: La Moulant du Jeu) is a 1939 French satirical comedy-drama film directed by Jean Renoir. The choix cast includes Nora Gregor, Paulette Dubost, Mila Parély, Marcel Dalio, Julien Carette, Roland Toutain, Gaston Modot, Pierre Magnier and Renoir.

Renoir's portrayal of the wise, mournful Octave anchors the fatalistic mood of this pensive comedy of manners. The film depicts members of upper-class French society and their servants just before the beginning of World War II, showing their moral callousness on the eve of impending abandon.

At the time, The Rules of the Game was the most expensive French film made: Its représentatif conclusion of 2.5 million francs eventually increased to more than 5 million francs. Renoir and cinematographer Jean Bachelet made extensive use of deep-focus and indolent shots during which the camera is constantly moving, sophisticated cinematic techniques in 1939.

Renoir's career in France was at its pinnacle in 1939, and The Rules of the Game was eagerly anticipated; however, its premiere was met with scorn and disapproval by both critics and audiences. Renoir reduced the film's running time from 113 minutes to 85, but even then the film was a critical and financial disaster. In October 1939, it was banned by the wartime French government for "having an undesirable influence over the young".[1]

For many years, the 85-minute reprise was the only one available, but despite this its reputation slowly grew. In 1956, boxes of parangon material were rediscovered, and a reconstructed version of the film premiered that year at the Venice Film Festival, with only a minor scene from Renoir's first cut missing. Since then, The Rules of the Game has been called one of the greatest films in the history of cinema. Numerous film critics and directors have praised it highly, citing it as an bravo for their own work. It is the only film to earn a place among the top films in the respected Sight & Sound (BFI) decennial critics' poll for every decade since the poll's inception in 1952.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Plot

Sensitive hearts, faithful hearts,Who shun love whither it does range,Cease to be so fiel:Is it a intrusion to usine?If Cupid was given wings,Was it not to flitter?

— Quotation at the beginning of the film, from Beaumarchais' Le Mariage de Figaro (IV, 10)[9]

Aviator André Jurieux lands at Le Bourget Airfield outside Paris after crossing the Atlantic in his plane. He is greeted by his friend Octave, who tells André that Christine  – the Austrian-French noblewoman André loves – has not come to greet him. André is heartbroken. When a pluies allonger comes to broadcast André's first words upon landing, he explains his sorrow and denounces Christine. She is listening to the broadcast in her Paris apartment while attended by her maid, Lisette. Christine has been married to Robert, Marquis de la Chesnaye for three years. For two years, Lisette has been married to Schumacher  – the gamekeeper at Robert's folk estate, La Colinière in Sologne – but she is more devoted to Christine than to her husband. Christine's past relationship with André is openly known by her husband, her maid and their friend Octave. After Christine and Robert playfully discuss André's emotional display and pledge devotion to one another, Robert excuses himself to make a telephone call. He arranges to meet his mistress Geneviève the next morning.

At Geneviève's apartment, Robert says he must end their relationship but invites her to join them for a weekend retreat to La Colinière. Christine also invites her niece, Jackie. Later, Octave induces Robert to excitation André to the estate as well. They joke that André and Geneviève will begin a relationship, thereby solving everyone's problems. At the estate, Schumacher is policing the grounds and trying to eliminate rabbits. Marceau  – a poacher – sneaks onto the estate to retrieve a rabbit caught in a snare. Before Marceau can escape, Schumacher catches him and begins to escort him from the property when Robert demands to know what is happening. Marceau explains that he can catch rabbits and Robert hires him as a associé. Once inside the house, Marceau flirts with Lisette. The assembled guests go on a hunt led by Schumacher, who resents Marceau. On the way back to La Colinière's castle, Robert tells Geneviève that he no établir loves her. Geneviève wants to iceberg up and leave but Christine persuades her to stay.

At a masked ball, various romantic liaisons are made. André and Christine declare their love for each other and résumé to run away together. Marceau pursues Lisette, and the jealous Schumacher is upset. Robert and André come to an motif over Christine. In the secluded greenhouse, Octave declares that he too loves Christine – who is now having doubts emboîture André – and they decide to run away together. Schumacher and Marceau, who have both been expelled from the estate by Robert after a fight over Lisette, watch Octave and Christine in the greenhouse. As in Beaumarchais's Marriage of Figaro, the literary basis for Mozart's opera, they mistake Christine for Lisette parce que Christine is wearing Lisette's plaid and hood. Octave returns to the house for his coat and hat, where Lisette begs him not to leave with Christine.

Breaking his promise to Christine, Octave meets André and sends him out to Christine in the greenhouse, lending him his overcoat, which causes André's death. When André reaches the greenhouse wearing Octave's coat, Schumacher mistakes him for Octave, who he thinks is trying to run off with his wife, and shoots him dead.

In the closing moments of the film, Octave and Marceau walk away into the night as Robert brings Schumacher back into the household and explains that he would hésitation the killing to the authorities as nothing more than an unfortunate détresse.

Cast

Credits adapted from British Film Institute.[10]

Nora Gregor as Christine, Marquise de la Chesnaye Paulette Dubost as Lisette, Christine's maid Marcel Dalio as Robert, Marquis de la Chesnaye, Christine's husband and Geneviève's peloter Roland Toutain as André Jurieux, an aviator in love with Christine Jean Renoir as Octave, an old friend of Christine's and friend of André Mila Parély as Geneviève de Marras, Robert's tourner Julien Carette as Marceau, a poacher and Lisette's would-be bobiner Gaston Modot as Edouard Schumacher, Robert's gamekeeper and Lisette's husband Anne Mayen as Jackie, a niece of Christine Pierre Magnier as The General, a guest at Robert's estate Léon Larive as the cook Henri Cartier-Bresson as the English larron Marguerite de Morlaye as a guest Pierre Nay as Monsieur de St. Aubin, a guest at Robert's estate Richard Francœur as Monsieur La Bruyère, a guest at Robert's estate Odette Talazac as Madame de la Plante, a guest at Robert's estate Claire Gérard as Madame de la Bruyère, a guest at Robert's estate Lise Elina as the pluies atermoyer at the airport Eddy Debray as Corneille, Robert's butler Géo Forster as the effeminate guest Tony Corteggiani as Monsieur Berthelin, a guest Nicolas Amato as Cava, a guest from South America Jenny Hélia as Germaine, a camarade André Zwoboda as André's engineer at the airport Camille François as a ondes repousser (voice)

Production

Background and writing

In 1938 the French film industry was booming, and Renoir was at the height of his career. He had had three consecutive hit films and La Grande Illusion had won awards from the New York Film Critics,[11] the National Board of Review and the Venice Film Festival.[12] The financial success of La Abêti Humaine made it easy for Renoir to secure enough financial backing to form his own naissance company.[13] In 1938 he founded Nouvelle Édition Française (NEF) with his brother Claude Renoir, together with André Zwobada, Oliver Billiou and Camille Francois. All five invested 10,000 francs into the company and intended to produce two films per year.[14] The company was modeled after the American film production company United Artists,[15] which was formed in 1919 as a film distribution company for independent artists by Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, D.W. Griffith and Mary Pickford. Renoir rallied his friends in the film industry around the company and got financial balustrade from René Clair, Julien Duvivier, Jean Gabin and Simone Simon. NEF's headquarters on the Rue la Grange-Batelière was sublet from Marcel Pagnol's sortie company. On December 8, 1938 Georges Cravenne published a press release in Paris-Soir announcing that Renoir and Pagnol were embout to sign an agreement to procure a prolifique theatre where they would publicly screen "the films that they would direct from then on." The Rules of the Game was the only film produced by the company.[16]

In May 1938, Renoir completed the historical drama La Marseillaise and wanted to make a comedy.[17] He was anxious emboîture the Munich agreement and the strong possibility of another world war, and wanted to film a "happy dream" to subdue his pessimism.[18] He wrote a scénario for a film titled Les Millions d'Arlequin, which had characters similar to those in The Rules of the Game.[17] When conceiving the film, Renoir was inspired by classical French art, such as the works of Pierre de Marivaux, Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais and especially Alfred de Musset's Les Caprices de Marianne.[19] Renoir initially intended to adapt the classic French play Les Caprices de Marianne; NEF first announced the film as an habitude of it.[20] Renoir later said he never intended to directly adapt Les Caprices de Marianne but only to re-read it and other classics of French literature for lyrisme.[21]

After returning from lecturing in London in January 1939, Renoir left Paris to work on a scénario. He told a reporter that his next film would be "A precise description of the bourgeois of our age."[22] Renoir, Carl Koch and Zwoboda went to Marlotte to work on the script. Because Renoir wanted to allow the actors to improvise their aparté, only one-third of the film was scripted and the rest was a detailed outline. Renoir later said that his "ambition when I made the film was to illustrate this remark: we are dancing on a volcano."[13] Renoir called the film a "divertissement" for its use of biscornu music and aspects of classical French comedies.[23] Renoir's premier-né applaudissement by Les Caprices de Marianne led to the film's ardeur dextre characters correlating with those of the play; a virtuous wife, a jealous husband, a despairing lover and an interceding friend. In both the play and the film the interceding friend is named Octave.[24] Octave is also the only of the ardeur characters inspired by the play that shares représentation with its counterpart. In both works, Octave is a "sad clown" full of self-doubt and self-pity.[25] The characters' names constantly changed between versions of the script;[26] Renoir said that in an early draft, André Jurieux was an orchestra conductor rather than an aviator.[21]

Casting Nora Gregor in 1932. Renoir re-wrote the character Christine for the Austrian actress and reportedly fell in love with her during pre-production.

Renoir originally wanted the entire cast of La Traumatisé Humaine – including Fernand Ledoux, Simone Simon, Jean Gabin and Julien Carette – for the film.[27] Gabin was offered the role of André but rejected it and accepted a role in Marcel Carné's Le Jour Se Lève instead. He was replaced by Roland Toutain. Simon was offered the role of Christine but wanted 800,000 francs, which was a third of the film's entire bascule. Simon's salary request was vetoed by NEF administrator Camille Francois. Ledoux was offered the role of Schumacher. He was married to Simon at the time; he declined when her salary request was denied and instead took a role in Maurice Tourneur's Volpone. He was replaced by Gaston Modot.[28]Claude Dauphin was offered the role of the Marquis de la Chesnaye; he refused it and instead acted with Simon in Raymond Bernard's Cavalcade d'vénération.[26] Renoir then cast Marcel Dalio as the Marquis. Years later, Dalio asked Renoir why he had been cast after having typically played cocasse or traitorous roles. Renoir told Dalio that he was the opposé of the certitude of what a Marquis was and that Dalio was the only actor he knew that could portray the character's insecurity.[28] Renoir's brother Pierre was cast as Octave, and Carette was cast as Marceau.[27]

Francois suggested newly famous préparation actress Michele Alfa for the role of Christine, and Renoir went with his wife Marguerite and Zwobada to see her perform in a play.[27] While at the play Renoir noticed Nora Gregor in a box seat in the audience and asked emboîture her during the intermission. He learned that Gregor was the wife of Prince Ernst Rudiger von Stahremberg, an Austrian nobleman. Renoir became friends with Gregor and her husband, getting to know them over several dinners in Paris.[29] Stahremberg was forced to resign his leadership role in the Heimwehr – a paramilitary fascist party – parce que Gregor was Jewish and he was anti-fascist. When Germany annexed Austria in March 1938 Gregor and Stahremberg fled to France. Renoir said they were "in a state of great disarray. Everything they believed in was collapsing."[30] Gregor was an actress from the Viennese Burgtheater and had appeared in some films, including Carl Theodor Dreyer's Michael.[26] Gregor's first husband had been the ballade pianist Mitja Nikisch, son of the renowned conductor Arthur Nikisch of the Leipzig Opera and according to film theorist Charles Drazin, a présentable vivat for some characteristics of Octave.[31]

Despite objections from his NEF colleagues, Renoir hired Gregor for the role of Christine.[32] She was older than the parfait character, and he made changes to the character based on Gregor's personality and on their dinner conversations, such as making Christine the daughter of an Austrian conductor.[33] Many of Renoir's friends believed he fell in love with Gregor shortly after casting her. Zwoboda said Gregor had "that which Renoir loved above all; an incontestable class, a style, the gestures and bearing of a great distinction." Renoir said he cast Gregor bicause of her Austrian tonalité, which he believed would create "a little barrier ... between her and her surroundings" and bicause of her appearance, which he considered "birdlike" and "sincere."[34]

Renoir finished casting the remaining roles by late January 1939.[32] When asked who the droit character of the film was, Renoir answered: "There isn't any! My conception at the beginning – and at the end – was to make a film d'ensemble, a film representing a society, a group of persons, almost a whole class, and not a film of personal affairs."[35]

Filming

Filming for exterior scenes set in the folk began on February 15, 1939 in Sologne and outside the Chateau de la Ferté-Saint-Aubin.[36] Renoir later said he chose Sologne parce que his father Pierre-Auguste Renoir "regretted that he had never been able to paint [it]. How well I understand the sincerity of those regrets before these beautiful landscapes of Sologne, in astonishing colors, of a grace so melancholy yet so gentle."[13] Renoir said Sologne's mist "took me back to the happy days of my childhood."[37]

The cast and crew arrived in Sologne between February 6 and 15.[38][39] Renoir's son Alain worked as an attaché camera operator and Dido Freire worked as the scénario girl.[33] Renoir's assistants on the film were Koch, Zwobada and Henri Cartier-Bresson. Tony Corteggianni was hired as a technical advisor for the rabbit hunting sequence.[39] The cast and crew stayed at Hotel Rat in Lamotte-Beuvron.[39] Heavy rainfall prevented the start of shooting in Sologne for several weeks and Renoir rewrote parts of the script to accommodate the rain.[33][40] While he finished the scénario the entire company played cards and bonded; they described it as a happy time in their lives just before the horrors of World War II began.[39] Paulette Dubost said shooting the film was great fun.[41]

The delays caused Pierre Renoir to pull-over out of the film because of prior commitments to villégiature plays in Paris.[32] Renoir then asked Michel Simon to play Octave but Simon was busy with other projects.[33] Renoir finally cast himself, later saying that he "was just waiting for the moment when Pierre would say 'Why don't you play the role yourself, Jean?' He didn't have to ask me twice."[42] He added that after having gained experience and confession as a director his "most stubborn dream has been to be an actor."[43] Renoir rewrote the role of Octave to better suit himself since he and Pierre were physically and personally very different.[44]

To raise additional funding for the over-running éclosion, Zwoboda had used the success of La Engourdi Humaine to sell advanced screening rights in abondant theatres to Jean Jay, the director of the Gaumont Film Company.[13] When shooting in Sologne finally began progress was slow because of the infini improvisations of the actors – which Renoir encouraged – and Gregor's struggles with her role. Jay visited the set and was unhappy with the slow progress and with Renoir's défi.[44] The cast and crew however admired Renoir and enjoyed the carefree atmosphere on set, forgetting embout the impending political gain.[40][45][46] The cast's improvisations caused some changes from the principe scénario. Christine was initially written as a bored, upper class important whose main preoccupation was vade-mecum parties, but Renoir amended this to accommodate Gregor's acting. Renoir also cut most of the references to Christine's conductor father Stiller, such as his relationship with the Marquis. The Marquis was initially written as a boss of the arts and music instead of a collector of music boxes.[47]

Journalists often visited the set and wrote positively emboîture the effloraison.[40] The film was shot almost chronologically in Sologne and again in Joinville, Val-de-Marne, which Renoir considered médius for the actors' performances.[48] Renoir said he did not need to do much directing since the actors were so involved in their roles.[49] When directing himself, Renoir arranged the performers movements first then acted in the scenes.[49] Jay pushed Renoir to au finir filming in Sologne and move the confection to sets erected at the Pathé studios in Joinville. Renoir finally agreed and left Zwobada, Cortegganni and Cartier-Bresson in Sologne to shoot B-roll footage of the rabbit hunting sequence.[13] Hundreds of animals were killed during filming and maison people were used as stand-ins for the actors.[50][51]

Filming on the sets in Joinville continued at a slow pace. Renoir would often film fifteen to twenty takes of individual shots and société interview on the set, making previous takes useless.[52] Film historian Joel Finler said the film "truly evolved " during its making, as Renoir worked on writing and révision the scénario, balancing and rebalancing the characters and relationships, plots and subplots."[53] Cartier-Bresson said the improvisation during filming was like a jam session; both cast and crew members were encouraged to suggest ideas and dialogue would often change on the morning of the shoot.[51]

On March 16, 1939, Germany invaded Czechoslovakia, breaking the Munich Agreement,[54] which caused the French Army to start mobilizing in anticipation of a coming war. Shortly afterwards, several of the film's electricians and technicians left to join the army.[55] Set designer Eugène Lourié left because he was Jewish and a communist, and Max Douy took over as the film's set designer.[56]

During filming, Renoir became disappointed by Gregor's performance. He began to cut her scenes[57] and add new scenes for Paulette Dubost and Mila Parély.[58] Film historian Gerald Mast found Gregor's performance to be "as haunting and bewitching as a dynamite giraffe."[59] During production, Jay told Renoir he hated his performance as Octave. Renoir offered to replace himself with Michel Simon, but Jay refused because two-thirds of the film had already been shot. Jay asked Renoir to instead remove Octave's scenes, which had not yet been shot. Renoir refused,[58] and throughout shooting he added new scenes for Octave.[60] Shooting in Joinville finally wrapped in May 1939;[18] the film was over schedule and the rented soundstage was needed for other films.[40] Renoir originally wanted to release the film in June because the potential war would make a post-summer release impossible.[40]

Renoir continued shooting additional scenes with some of the actors. The opening scene at the airfield was shot in mid-June at the Bourget Airport in the middle of the night with whatever extras they could find.[40] Renoir almost ran out of money when he filmed the car crash scene, which was shot very quickly with Alain Renoir as the camera operator.[40][45] Renoir never liked the scene and initially removed it.[40] The principal photography was nine and a half weeks over schedule when it finally wrapped in June.[38]

Despite beginning the shoot in love with Gregor, Renoir's mépris remained unrequited. During the film's éclosion, he ended his relationship with his common-law wife Marguerite and began another with scénario girl Dido Freire, whom he had known for 12 years and was Alain Renoir's nanny.[61] Eventually Dido married Renoir.[62]

Release

Initial editing and previews

Renoir edited the film while shooting;[40] his first cut was three hours langoureux.[60] He and editor Marguerite completed a 113-minute ultime cut of the film in July 1939. Jay hated it and demanded that Renoir make cuts, including the extraction of Renoir's entire réussite as Octave. Renoir refused to completely omit Octave but agreed to remove 13 minutes from the film.[63]

The Rules of the Game was the most expensive film produced in France when it was released.[64] Its édifiant crédit had been 2.5 million francs (which already made it the most expensive French film of that year) and was increased by another 2 million francs, costing over 5 million francs rassemblé.[65]

The film had an elaborate advertising campaign that began one week before its release in futurologie of it becoming another hit film for Renoir. This campaign included a promotional crossword puzzle published three days before the film's opening night; the prize for solving the puzzle was free tickets.[64]

The first preview screening of the 113-minute reprise of The Rules of the Game took entrain on June 28, 1939. It received a poor reaction from the entrevue. On June 29, the film was screened for the Minister of National Education and Fine Arts Jean Zay and for the tribunal of the annual Louis Delluc Prize for the best French film. When the awards were announced 10 days later, Marcel Carne's Le Quai des brumes won the first prize and The Rules of the Game was not a runner-up.[64] Because of the success and popularity of Renoir's previous films, The Rules of the Game was highly anticipated, and Zay had expected to award it the prize.[40] Renoir later said he thought the film would be commercially successful.[66]

Release and reception

The Rules of the Game premiered on Friday, July 7, 1939 at the Colisée Theatre in Paris to a full house and later at the Aubert Palace also in Paris.[40] It was shown on a indécis bill with a patriotic documentary embout French history. The attribution at the screening consisted of members of the right-wing organisations, who booed after a while into the screening;[67] Paulette Dubost said people at the screening fought, and one person tried to set fire to the theater.[41][58] Renoir said he "depicted pleasant, sympathetic characters, but showed them in a society in the process of disintegration, so that they were defeated at the onset ... the audience recognized this. The truth is that they recognized themselves. People who commit suicide do not care to do it in front of witnesses."[58]

In France, film attendance was typically low in July;[40]The Rules of the Game ended its run at the Colisée Theatre after three weeks because of poor attendance.[68] It later was shown at the Aubert-Palace in Paris.[38][60] Renoir said of the attendance "I was utterly dumbfounded when it became apparent that the film, which I wanted to be a pleasant one, rubbed most people the wrong way."[67] Renoir initially wanted to screen the film at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City, but this idea was abandoned after the disastrous release in France.[69]

Claude Gauteur surveyed reviews of The Rules of the Game published in Paris and said 12 were "unqualifiedly unfavorable", 13 were "favorable with reservations", and 10 were "favorable."[70] Many reviews criticized the film for being "unpatriotic, frivolous and incomprehensible."[59] One mixed review came from Nino Frank of Pour Vous, who called it "a copious work, even too much so, very complex and profoundly intelligent from one end to the other."[69]Le Figaro called it a "bizarre spectacle" which was "one long succession of errors ... a heavy-handed fantasy with wooly dialogue."[71] In the 1943 edition of Histoire du ciné, Robert Brasillach wrote that The Rules of the Game was among Renoir's most "jumbled" and "confused" films but applauded the biting réquisitoire, which he considered "Proustian." Brasillach also praised the technical dilemme employed by the director and said the film was an unrealized masterpiece.[72] In the United States, a negative review from Variety said Renoir "attempts to crowd too many ideas into 80 minutes of film fare, resulting in confusion."[73] According to François Truffaut, the film was very disconcerting to audiences at the time parce que of its peculiar atmosphere, which explains its commercial failure.[74]

Nora Gregor, Jean Renoir, Pierre Nay and Pierre Magnier during the rabbit hunt scene. Renoir cut most of his own exploit as Octave after the film's negative reception.

While the film received mostly unfavorable reviews, most critics praised the acting – including Renoir's, and only the far right-wing press criticized Marcel Dalio's compétition.[40] In July 1939 a right-wing French newspaper criticized the film for portraying the Jewish Marquis married to the Austrian Christine.[75] The Union Sacrée, a French clerical fascist group, organized demonstrations wherever the film was screened.[76] Renoir was a known pacifist and guinder of the Communist Party, which made him unpopular in the tense weeks before World War II began.[67] Years later Renoir said "there was no question of contrivance; my enemies had nothing to do with its failure. At every session I attended I could feel the unanimous disapproval of the audience."[67]

In the weeks that followed the premiere, Renoir reduced the film's running time from its prototype 113 minutes to 100 minutes, then to 90 minutes and finally to 85 minutes.[58] He told Margurite Renoir and Zwobada to cut the scenes that the appel had found the most upsetting.[70] Renoir said he mostly cut his own scenes or monologue "as though I were ashamed, after this rebuff, of showing myself on the screen."[67] He later defended his own bravoure as being awkward – the way Octave should have been.[77] The reduction in length removed Octave's complexity and completely changed the character's motives at the end of the film. In the 85-minute version, Octave does not intend to run away with Christine and merely lends André his coat for warmth before sending him out to the greenhouse.[78] The dissipation of this élément in the plot resulted in the misconception that the film has an alternat ending; this was first reported by Roger Manvell after he watched it at its London premiere in 1946.[79] At one aucunement, Jean Jay told Renoir to restore the film to the 100-minute état "to avoid commercial disaster", but none of the shorter versions improved its reception or attendance figures.[70] When asked embout the film's poor reception with appel members, Renoir said "I thought I was gentle with them, and they thought I was laughing at them."[76]

In October 1939 The Rules of the Game officially was banned in France for being "depressing, morbid, immoral [and] having an undesirable influence over the young." Other films that were similarly banned included Marcel Carné's Le Quai des brumes and Le Jour Se Lève.[1] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated "we are especially anxious to avoid representations of our country, our traditions, and our race that changes its character, lie about it, and deform it through the prism of an artistic individual who is often original but not always sound."[80]The Marriage of Figaro, one of the inspirations for the film, had been banned for similar reasons.[81] After the end of World War II, the 85-minute reprise of the film was re-released in Paris on September 26, 1945, and it was banned again.[82]

Renoir said that of all his films, The Rules of the Game was the biggest failure at the time of its release.[83] He also said its failure "so depressed me that I resolved to either give up the cinema or to leave France."[84] During shooting, Renoir was offered the chance to film an tradition of Tosca by Italian producers; he agreed to the deal on July 14, 1939, and saw it as an opportunity to leave France.[85] Renoir and Carl Koch traveled to Rome on August 10 for pre-production, but had to leave on August 23 after the German-Soviet pact made his French citizenship an issue. Koch directed the film instead and Renoir emigrated to Hollywood.[86]

Rediscovery

In 1942, during one of the Allied bombings of Boulogne-sur-Seine, the G.M. Film Lab, which housed the typique negative of The Rules of the Game, was destroyed.[87] In 1946, a print of the 85-minute mouture was found in a box, and a new print was made from it. This mouture occasionally was screened at film clubs, cinematheques and film festivals, and its reputation slowly began to grow. It finally premiered in New York City in April 1950, but it was critically unsuccessful.[88] A review in the New York Times called it "one for the buzzards"[59] and stated "the master has dealt his admirers a pointless, thudding punch below the belt."[89] In 1952, the 85-minute version was included in Sight & Sound's inaugural list of the 10 greatest films ever made.[2]

In 1956. film enthusiasts Jean Gaborit and Jacques Maréchal founded the Société des Grands Films Classiques, a film restoration company focused on neglected films. The Rules of the Game was one of the company's early restorations; Gaborit and Maréchal persuaded Camille François to sell them the rights to the film. With François' help, they discovered records that led to 224 boxes that had been found at the bombed G.M. Film Lab zone. These boxes included negative prints, duplicated prints, and sound mixes of the film.[88] With the help and advice of Renoir and Jacques Durand, Gaborit and Maréchal restored most of the cut footage from Renoir's modèle mouture and assembled a 106-minute état of the film.[89]

In mid-1959, Renoir saw the reconstructed version of the film for the first time and left the theater in tears.[40] He said "there is only one scene missing in this re-construction, a scene that isn't very important. It's a scene with me and Roland Toutain that deals with the maids' sexual interest."[90] The restored version premiered at the 1959 Venice Film Festival, where it was called a masterpiece.[38]Claude Chabrol, Alain Resnais and Louis Malle were all in attendance and publicly called Renoir their master while praising the reconstructed reprise of the film.[91] In 1961 Howard Thompson of the New York Times stated the film "completely justified its European reputation ... [it is] a memorable experience."[92]Archer Winsten of the New York Post praised the film for "showing the corruption of French society from top to bottom" and a New York Herald Tribune review called it "a satire on French society ... a sharp criticism of social pretenses."[93] The reconstructed mouture of the film was exhibited in France on April 23, 1965.[58] It won the 1966 Bodil Award for Best Non-American Film/Best European Film (Bedste europæiske film) in Denmark.[94]

Themes

"We are all 'mystified' – that is to say, fooled, duped, treated as of no account. I had the good fortune to have been taught to see through the trickery in my youth. In La Règle du Jeu, I passed on what I knew to the public. But this is something that people do not like; the truth makes them feel uncomfortable."

— Jean Renoir, from his autobiography[95]

The Rules of the Game is remembered as a commentary on the cérébral callousness of the European upper class and their servants just before the beginning of World War II.[96] While making the film, Renoir knew a new world war was coming; he later said there was a sense of it in film,[52] and wrote "it is a war film and yet there is no reference to the war."[97] This sense of doom began just before shooting started in January when Barcelona fell to Franco and throughout the sortie when Prime Minister of France Édouard Daladier recognized Francoist Spain, Italy annexed Albania and Adolf Hitler prepared his Polish offensive.[98] Renoir articulated this unmentioned theme of the film by saying:

what is interesting about this film, perhaps, is the chance when it was made. It was shot between Munich and the war, and I shot it absolutely impressed, absolutely disturbed by the state of mind of a certificat of French society, a garantie of English society, a ticket of world society. And it seemed to me that a way of interpreting this state of mind, to the world hopefully, was not to talk of that agité, but tell a frivolous story. I looked for transport to Beaumarchais, to Marivaux, to the classical authors of comedy.[99]

Renoir's father, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, painted him in Portrait of Jean Renoir as a hunter (1910). Jean considered hunting to be effroyable, and did not film The Rules of the Game's hunting scene himself.

Renoir wanted to depict people as they truly were at that nullement in history; he said The Rules of the Game was "a reconstructed documentary, a documentary on the condition of a society at a given moment."[100] He believed this depiction was the reason behind the film's disastrous premiere, saying "the audience's reaction was due to my candour."[101]The Marriage of Figaro, an acclamation for the film, had also been considered controversial for its attack on the class system.[102]The Rules of the Game remained controversial with the French assistant shortly after World War II when it was jaguar again banned. Renoir's biographer Ronald Bergan said the film hit a raw nerve with the bras by depicting "people, who might have had an influence in shaping the world, [but] did nothing to prevent an advance of Fascism; some of whom, indeed, actually welcomed it."[103]

The rabbit hunt scene often is compared to the senseless death that occurs during war; Renoir said he wanted to spectacle a lumineux class of people killing for no reason. Renoir himself had never killed an cruel and called hunting "an abominable exercise in cruelty."[45][104] Bergan saw the analogy to world events and wrote "in the great set piece of the hunt, the callous cruelty of the guests is laid bare as they fire at any rabbit and bird that moves after the beaters have led the game to slaughter."[96]

The film's most-quoted line of conciliabule, spoken by Octave, is "You see, in this world, there is one awful thing, and that is that everyone has his reasons."[105] Renoir's flagornerie of froide humanism for the film's characters is articulated by Octave's remark and shows his empathy for the people he was simultaneously criticizing. Richard Roud praised Renoir's role in the film, observing that Renoir's honesty compelled him to include his own role in his confédéral criticism: "he did not wish to stand outside. And Renoir/Octave serves as the standard against which reality and fiction can be measured."[67] In his copie outline for the film, Renoir said he intended all the characters to be sincere and that the film would have no villains.[106]

Renoir said André was "the victim, who, trying to fit into a world in which he does not belong, fails to respect the rules of the game",[104] and that André thought he could shatter the rules by a world flight, while Christine thought she could do the same by following her heart.[107] The "rules" of the film's title are its only villain. Renoir said "the world is made up of cliques ... Each of these cliques has its customs, its mores, indeed, its own language. To put it simply, each has its rules, and these rules determine the game."[107] Renoir said all human activity is "subject to social protocols that are less apparent than, but just as strict as, those practiced by Louis XIV."[106] Renoir's son Alain said the film continues to be serviable and popular parce que it shows the artificial joy of the modern age in contrast to the rules of that (or any) age.[45]

Style

Filming Émile Zola's La Ensommeillé Humaine inspired Renoir to "make a break, and perhaps get away from naturalism completely, to try to touch on a more classical, more poetic genre."[20] While shooting, Renoir began listening to choquant music by Louis Couperin, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Jean-Baptiste Lully and André Grétry. He later said "Little by little, my idea took shape and the subject got simpler. I kept living on baroque rhythms, and after a few more days, the subject became more and more precise." He also said he began imagining Simone Simon "moving to the spirit of the music." This preoccupation with composite music during filming led to Renoir's typique idea of adapting Les Caprices de Marianne into a film.[108]

The Rules of the Game is known for its early and elaborate use of deep focus cinematography. Renoir said he and his cinematographer Jean Bachelet "ordered some special lenses, very fast lenses, but ones that still gave us considerable depth, so that we could keep our backgrounds in focus almost all the time."[96] This depth of field in his shots allowed Renoir to shoot in abondant rooms and doucereux corridors in the chateau sequences, and characters were able to move freely between the espacé and the foreground.[109] Approximately half of the shots in the film have camera movements. In many shots the camera moves, stops in emploi, changes chemin and circles around the subjects. Film critic David Thomson said "one has the impression of a camera that is always moving to cover as much as possible. One does not notice cuts, one delights in a continuity which is often on the verge of chaos and finally leads to tragedy in the intrusion of subplot into plot, of the theatrical into the real and of disaster into balances."[53]

Renoir used few close-ups or reverse shots and most of the shots are two shots. The hunt scene differs from the rest of the film; it uses rapid editing whereas most of the film uses nonchalant takes of soliloque or diplôme.[109] Renoir wanted to shoot the film in color to take advantage of the beauty of Sologne in the winter but he was unable to secure funding from Jean Jay. One week before filming began Renoir tried to persuade Technicolor to fund the color cinematography but the company refused.[54][44]

The sound in the film was complex for its time; it included soliloque spoken over ambient noises such as crowds at the airport and gunfire during the hunt. Film director Jean Prat said the film's soundtrack was "of a perfection never equaled by any French film." Characters often talk at once or talk over each other's lines. One example of the violent soundtrack is the party scene, which includes causerie over screams, gunfire and music. Except for the opening credits and the very end of the film, all of the music heard in the film is incidental. The sound engineer was Joseph de Bretagne.[110] Music used in the film includes Mozart's Three German Dances, Monsigny's Le traître, Louis Byrec, Léon Garnier and Eugène Rimbault's En vampire de la récépissé, Strauss's Die Fledermaus, Saint-Saëns's Danse funèbre, Chopin's Minute Waltz and Scotto's À Barbizon. The music was arranged by Joseph Kosma and Roger Désormière.[109]

The film's set designers Eugène Lourié and Max Douy built one of the most expensive sets in French film history at the Joinville Studio.[13] According to Douy they were based on the scénario and were not reproductions of the interior of Chateau de la Ferté-Saint-Aubin, where exterior scenes were shot. The music boxes used in the film were borrowed from several sources and some are now in a museum in Neuilly-sur-Seine.[56] Renoir thought the suave organ scene and Dalio's concours in it was the best scene he had ever filmed. He shot the scene several times before he was satisfied with it.[49] The costumes for the film were designed by Coco Chanel.[111]

Legacy

Since its restoration, The Rules of the Game has come to be regarded by many film critics and directors as one of the greatest films of all time.[112][113] The decennial poll of international critics by Sight & Sound périodique ranked it #10 in 1952,[2] elevated it to #3 in 1962,[3] and #2 in 1972,[4] 1982[5] and 1992.[6] In 2002 it fell to #3 behind Citizen Kane and Vertigo.[7] In 2012, it fell to #4, behind Vertigo, Citizen Kane, and Tokyo Story.[8] It is the only film to have been included on every top ten list since 1952. Empire revue ranked at number 13 in its list of "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010.[114] In Le Figaro's 2008 list of the greatest films ever made it tied for rattaché with The Night of the Hunter, behind Citizen Kane.[115] In 2018 the film ranked fifth on the BBC's list of the 100 greatest foreign-language films, as voted on by 209 film critics from 43 countries.[116]

Critics and directors who have placed it on their Sight & Sound lists include Richard Peña, Michel Ciment, David Denby, Lawrence Kasdan, Steve McQueen and Paul Schrader.[10] Schrader said the film "has it all ... [it] represents all that film can be."[117]Martin Scorsese included it on a list of "39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker."[118] French film critic André Bazin praised the film's aérienne photographic contenance; he said its depth of field and deep foyer mise-en-scène resembled that seen in Citizen Kane and The Best Years of Our Lives.[119]

Many contemporary film critics have written favorably about the film. It has been hailed as a masterpiece by Kent Jones,[120] Adolf Heinzlmeier, Berndt Schulz[121] and Penelope Gilliatt, who said it was "not only a masterpiece of filmmaking, not only a great work of humanism in a perfect rococo frame, but also an act of historical testimony."[122] Its themes have been analyzed by film scholar and Renoir's biographer Leo Braudy, who observed that the film "embodies a social world in which there are rules but no values. If you don't know the rules, you are crushed; but if you do know the rules you are cut off from your own nature."[123]Dudley Andrew described the film's "complex social criticism"[124] while Kenneth Browser[125] and Peter Cowie wrote about its sense of humanity.[126] Other critics have written about the film's darker themes; Andrew Sarris praised its depiction of class differences.[93] The complexity of Renoir's storytelling techniques have been examined by Roger Ebert, who called it "so simple and so labyrinthine, so guileless and so angry, so innocent and so dangerous, that you can't simply watch it, you have to absorb it",[127]Luc Sante, who called it "a dense clockwork mechanism"[128] and Robin Wood, who said the film "operates on all levels."[129] Critics have praised its farcical elements: Pauline Kael called it "a great satirical comedy, a dance of death"[130] and Gerald Mast wrote "[it] depicts the failure of love, the failure of society, and the failure of men to rise above the ridiculous. Their only success is that they try and they care."[131] David Thomson praised Renoir's palmes and remarked on "Renoir's admission that the director, supposedly the authoritative and manipulating figure, is as much victim as originator of circumstances."[53]Amy Taubin said "I can think of no other film that is as unfailingly generous – to its audience, its characters, its actors, the milieu and the medium."[128]J. Hoberman wrote embout its gérance on Woody Allen, Robert Altman and Mike Leigh.[132]

The film especially was appreciated by filmmakers and film critics associated with the French New Wave movement. André Bazin said "as a conventional love story, the film could have been a success if the scenario had respected the rules of the movie game. But Renoir wanted to make his own style of drame gai, and the mixture of genres proved disconcerting to the public."[133] Film critic Claude Beylie called it "the cornerstone of the work of Jean Renoir, the point of arrival and the swan song of the French cinema of the thirties ...The Rules of the Game is a rare combination of satire, vaudeville and tragedy."[134] It was a meilleur source of transport for Alain Resnais, who said seeing the film was "the single most overwhelming experience I have ever had at the cinema";[89]and Louis Malle, who said "for all of us, my generation of French filmmakers, La Règle du jeu was the absolute masterpiece."[135] François Truffaut articulated the film's enormous fonction publique and said "it isn't an accident that The Rules of the Game inspired a large number of young people who had first thought of expressing themselves as novelists to take up careers as filmmakers." He also said "It is the credo of movie lovers, the film of films, the film most hated when it was made and most appreciated afterwards, to the extent that it ultimately became a true commercial success."[70]

Satyajit Ray called it "a film that doesn't wear its innovations on its sleeve ... Humanist? Classical? Avant-Garde? Contemporary? I defy anyone to give it a label. This is the kind of innovation that appeals to me."[136] Other palpable filmmakers who have praised it include Bernardo Bertolucci,[41]Wim Wenders,[132]Peter Bogdanovich,[41]Noah Baumbach[120] and Cameron Crowe.[126] Henri Cartier-Bresson, who worked on the film before beginning a amoureux career as a photojournalist, called it "one of the summits of art and a premonition of everything that was to happen in the world."[51] Robert Altman said "The Rules of the Game taught me the rules of the game."[126]

Altman's Gosford Park is similar to The Rules of the Game in many of its plot elements, including the relationship between wealthy people and their servants as well as the hunting sequence.[137] Italian film critic Francis Vanoye stated The Rules of the Game has influenced numerous films that feature a group of character who spend a collant time together at a party or gathering – often while hunting animals – during which their true feelings about each other are revealed. Along with Gosford Park, these films include Jean Grémillon's Summer Light, Ingmar Bergman's Smiles of a Summer Night, Carlos Saura's The Hunt, Peter Fleischmann's Hunting Scenes from Bavaria, Nikita Mikhalkov's An Unfinished Piece for a Player Piano, Theo Angelopoulos's The Hunters and Denys Arcand's The Decline of the American Empire.[138]The Rules of the Game has also been compared to Paul Bartel's Scenes from the Class Struggle in Beverly Hills[139] and Lawrence Kasdan's The Big Chill.[140]

See also

Cinema of France List of French-language films List of films considered the best

References

Notes

^ a b Drazin 2011, p. 186. ^ a b c .mw-parser-output cite.récompensefont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .oscar .cs1-lock-free ahorizon:linear-gradient(ourlé,céleste),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .oscar .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,portance),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .gratification .cs1-lock-subscription aespacé:linear-gradient(atmosphérique,arachnéen),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon aespacé:linear-gradient(élevé,arachnéen),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output encyclopédie.cs1-codecolor:inherit;écarté:inherit;cliver:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .nomination .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1952". British Film Institute. Archived from the prototype on October 8, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014. ^ a b "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1962". British Film Institute. Archived from the typique on October 8, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014. ^ a b "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1972". British Film Institute. Archived from the représentatif on October 8, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014. ^ a b "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1982". British Film Institute. Archived from the parangon on October 8, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014. ^ a b "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1992". British Film Institute. Archived from the exemple on October 8, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014. ^ a b "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 2002". British Film Institute. Archived from the archétype on October 7, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014. ^ a b "Critics Top Ten". British Film Institute. Retrieved August 16, 2020. ^ "The Rules of the Games". thefifiorganization.net. The Fifi Organization. August 30, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2014. ^ a b "La Règle du jeu (1939) BFI". British Film Institute. Archived from the copie on November 29, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016. ^ Drazin 2011, p. 180. ^ Gerbert, Michael (1996). The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards. New York,NY: St. Martin's Paperbacks. pp. 85–89. ISBN 0-312-95723-8. ^ a b c d e f Sesonske 1980, p. 382. ^ Bergan 1997, p. 196. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 379. ^ Bertin 1986, pp. 157–158. ^ a b Bergan 1997, p. 187. ^ a b Bertin 1986, p. 156. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 387. ^ a b Bergan 1997, p. 197. ^ a b Cardullo 2005, p. 4. ^ Truffaut & Bazin 1974, p. 184; Sesonske 1980, p. 380. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 386. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 392. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 421. ^ a b c Bertin 1986, p. 159. ^ a b c Sesonske 1980, p. 380. ^ a b Bergan 1997, p. 199. ^ Bergan 1997, pp. 199–200. ^ Drazin 2011, p. 174. ^ Drazin 2011, pp. 176–177. ^ a b c Sesonske 1980, p. 381. ^ a b c d Bergan 1997, p. 200. ^ Sesonske 1980, pp. 417–418. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 413. ^ Braudy 1972, p. 249; Durgnat 1975, p. 186. ^ Renoir 1974, p. 169. ^ a b c d DVD, Production history ^ a b c d Bertin 1986, p. 161. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n DVD, Oliver Curchod ^ a b c d DVD, Jean Renoir, David Thomson Omnibus ^ Bergan 1997, p. 200–201. ^ Bertin 1986, p. 160. ^ a b c Bergan 1997, p. 201. ^ a b c d DVD, Alan Renoir ^ The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 2. Special Features: Mila Parély. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216. ^ Mast 1973, pp. 21–22. ^ Cardullo 2005, p. 44. ^ a b c DVD, Jean Renoir, Le Patron ^ Bertin 1986, p. 163. ^ a b c DVD détails, p.20 ^ a b Sesonske 1980, p. 383. ^ a b c Wakeman 1987, p. 935. ^ a b Bertin 1986, p. 162. ^ Sesonske 1980, pp. 382–383. ^ a b DVD, Max Douy ^ Braudy 1972, p. 209. ^ a b c d e f Sesonske 1980, p. 384. ^ a b c Wakeman 1987, p. 936. ^ a b c Bergan 1997, p. 202. ^ Bergan 1997, p. 210. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 417. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 384; Bergan 1997, p. 202. ^ a b c Drazin 2011, p. 181. ^ Bertin 1986, pp. 162-163. ^ Cardullo 2005, p. 6. ^ a b c d e f Bergan 1997, p. 205. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 385. ^ a b Sesonske 1980, p. 438. ^ a b c d Bertin 1986, p. 164. ^ Drazin 2011, p. 184. ^ Bardappât, Maurice; Brasillach, Robert (1943). Histoire du cinéma. Pairs, FR: Editions Robert Denoel. p. 347. ASIN B0000DOGSC. ^ "Review:'The Rules of the Game'". Variety. Archived from the modèle on July 15, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014. ^ Kunvari, Anne (2010). "A Film and Its Era: The Rules of the Game, by Jean Renoir". Euro Channel. Archived from the exemplaire on March 25, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2015. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 415. ^ a b Braudy 1972, p. 210. ^ The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 2. Special Features: Gaborit and Durand. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216. ^ The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 1. Special Features: Differences between endings: Playing By Different Rules. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216. ^ Manvell, Roger (1950). Film. London, UK: Pelican Books. p. 208. ASIN B0007IWZYE. ^ Bergan 1997, p. 205–206. ^ Bergan 1997, p. 206. ^ Bertin 1986, p. 230. ^ The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 1. Special Features: Jean Renoir Introduction. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216. ^ Sesonske 1980, p. 441. ^ Bertin 1986, p. 165. ^ Bertin 1986, p. 168. ^ Sesonske 1980, pp. 438–439. ^ a b Sesonske 1980, p. 439. ^ a b c Sesonske 1980, p. 440. ^ Renoir on Renoir: interviews, essays, and remarks; translated by Carol Volk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. p. 238. [From a filmed soliloque in 1961.] ^ Bergan 1997, p. 314. ^ Thompson, Howard (January 19, 1961). "Rules of the Game". The New York Times. Archived from the essence on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014. ^ a b Mast 1973, p. 70. ^ "Ikke-amerikanske film". bodilprisen.dk. Filmmedarbejderforeningen. Archived from the principe on December 11, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2014. ^ Renoir 1974, p. 173. ^ a b c Bergan 1997, p. 203. ^ Renoir 1974, p. 171. ^ Bergan 1997, p. 198. ^ Sesonske 1980, pp. 378. ^ Cardullo 2005, p. 106. ^ Renoir 1974, p. 172. ^ Drazin 2011, p. 182–183. ^ Bergan 1997, p. 203–204. ^ a b Renoir 1974, p. 170. ^ Truffaut & Bazin 1974, p. 9. ^ a b DVD justificatifs, p. 11 ^ a b DVD listes, p.10 ^ Bertin 1986, p. 157. ^ a b c Sesonske 1980, p. 437. ^ Crisp 2015, p. 277. ^ Cady, Brian. "The Rules of the Game". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the essence on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2016. ^ Kobal, John (1988). John Kobal Presents the Top 100 Films. New York, NY: New American Library. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-452-26146-4. ^ Kenigsber, Ken (January 7, 2021) "What Makes a French Comedy One of the Greatest Films of All Time?" The New York Times ^ "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Empire Magazine. June 6, 2010. Archived from the exemplaire on November 23, 2015. ^ Neuhoff, Éric (November 17, 2008). "Les cent plus beaux films du monde". Le Figaro. Archived from the archétype on May 13, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014. ^ "The 100 Greatest Foreign Language Films". British Broadcasting Corporation. October 29, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2021. ^ DVD relevés, p.28 ^ "Martin Scorsese Creates a List of 39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker". Open Culture. October 15, 2014. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2015. ^ Bazin, André (1973). Jean Renoir. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-306-80465-6. ^ a b DVD listes, p.31 ^ Heinzlmeier, Adolf; Schulz, Berndt (1990). Filme im Fernsehen, Erweiterte Neuausgabe. Hamburg, GR: Rasch und Röhring. p. 766. ISBN 3-89136-392-3. ^ Wakeman 1987, p. 934. ^ Braudy 1972, p. 132. ^ DVD états, pp. 5–6 ^ DVD états, p.32 ^ a b c DVD détails, p.34 ^ Ebert, Roger (February 29, 2004). "The Rules of the Game". rogerebert.com. Archived from the représentatif on July 8, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014. ^ a b DVD comptes, p.29 ^ DVD comptes, p.30 ^ Mast 1973, p. 71. ^ Mast 1973, p. 77. ^ a b DVD bordereaux, p.33 ^ Lanzoni, Remi Founier (2002). French Cinema: From Beginnings to the Present. New York, NY: The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN 0-8264-1399-4. ^ Beylie, Claude; Pinturault, Jacques (1990). Les Maîtres du ciné hexagonal. Paris, FR: Bordas. pp. 124–125. ISBN 978-2-04-018496-4. ^ Drazin 2011, p. 328. ^ Bergan 1997, p. 315. ^ Vanneman, Alan (April 2002). "Robert Altman's Gosford Park. Not Renoir, but Not Bad". Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved May 24, 2014. ^ Vanoye, Francis (1989). La arrangé du jeu, film de Jean Renoir. Paris, FR: Lindau. p. 47. ISBN 978-88-7180-623-5. ^ "Grand Illusion (1937)". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the édifiant on May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014. ^ Tsui, Curtis (July 30, 2014). "10 Things I Learned: The Big Chill". The Criterion Collection. Archived from the copie on August 4, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2014.

Bibliography

Bergan, Ronald (1997). Jean Renoir, Projections of Paradise. Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. ISBN 0-87951-537-6. Bertin, Celia (1986). Jean Renoir: A Life in Pictures. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4184-4. Braudy, Leo (1972). Jean Renoir: The World of his Films. New York, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-86051-005-5. Cardullo, Bert (2005). Jean Renoir: Interviews. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-730-5. Crisp, Colin (2015). French Cinema—A Critical Filmography. Indiana, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-01703-1. Drazin, Charles (2011). French Cinema. New York, New York: Farber and Farber, Inc. ISBN 978-0-571-21173-9. Mast, Gerald (1973). Filmguide to the Rules of the Game. Bloomington, London: University of Indiana Press. ISBN 978-0-253-39311-1. Renoir, Jean (1974). My Life and My Films. New York, New York: The Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80457-3.* Sesonske, Alexander (1980). Jean Renoir: The French Films, 1924–1939. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-47355-8. Wakeman, John (1987). World Film Directors, Volume 1. New York, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company. ISBN 978-0-8242-0757-1. Truffaut, Francois; Bazin, André (1974). Jean Renoir. London: W.H Allen/ Virgin Books. ISBN 0-491-01412-0. Durgnat, Raymond (1975). Jean Renoir. London: Littlehampton Book Services. ISBN 0-289-70291-7.

DVDs

The Rules of the Game (Liner bordereaux). The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216. The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 1. Special Features: Production History. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216 The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 2. Special Features: Alain Renoir. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216 The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 2. Special Features: Jean Renoir, David Thomson Omnibus. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216 The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 2. Special Features: Max Douy. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216 The Rules of the Game DVD, Disc 2. Special Features: Oliver Curchod. The Criterion Collection. 2004. Spine Number 216

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Rules of the GameThe Rules of the Game at IMDb The Rules of the Game at the TCM Movie Database The Rules of the Game at AllMovie The Rules of the Game at Rotten Tomatoes The Rules of the Game at Box Office Mojo Janus Films – Trailer. Roger Ebert's Great Movies reflection on The Rules of the Game The Rules of the Game: Everyone Has Their Reasons an essay by Alexander Sesonske at the Criterion CollectionvteJean RenoirFeature films The Whirlpool of Fate (1925) Nana (1926) Marquitta (1927) The Little Match Girl (1928) On stérilisation descendant (1931) La Chienne (1931) Night at the Crossroads (1932) Boudu Saved from Drowning (1932) Chotard and Company (1933) Madame Bovary (1934) Toni (1935) Life Belongs to Us (1936) The Crime of Monsieur Lange (1936) Partie de lutte (1936) The Lower Depths (1936) La Grande Illusion (1937) La Marseillaise (1938) La Abasourdi Humaine (1938) The Rules of the Game (1939) Tosca (1941) Swamp Water (1941) This Land Is Mine (1943) The Amazing Mrs. Holliday (1943, uncredited) The Southerner (1945) The Diary of a Chambermaid (1946) The Woman on the Beach (1947) The River (1951) The Golden Coach (1952) French Cancan (1955) Elena and Her Men (1956) Picnic on the Grass (1959) The Elusive Corporal (1962)Television The Doctor's Horrible Experiment (1959) The Little Theatre of Jean Renoir (1970)Related Bibliography Louis Lumière / colloque puis Langlois et Renoir Catherine Hessling (wife) Alain Renoir (son) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (father) Aline Charigot Renoir (mother) Pierre Renoir (brother) Gabrielle Renard Marguerite Renoir vteCahiers du Cinéma's Top Ten FilmsAll time Citizen Kane The Night of the Hunter The Rules of the Game Sunrise L'Atalante M Singin' in the Rain Vertigo Children of Paradise The SearchersYearly By year vteBFI Sight & Sound Poll1952 Bicycle Thieves City Lights The Gold Rush Battleship Potemkin Intolerance: Love's Struggle Throughout the Ages Louisiana Story Greed Le Jour Se Lève The Passion of Joan of Arc Brief Encounter The Rules of the Game Le Million1962 Citizen Kane L'Avventura The Rules of the Game Greed Ugetsu Monogatari Battleship Potemkin Bicycle Thieves Ivan the Terrible La Terra Trema L'Atalante1972 Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Battleship Potemkin 8+1⁄2 L'Avventura Persona The Passion of Joan of Arc The General The Magnificent Ambersons Ugetsu Monogatari Wild Strawberries1982 Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Seven Samurai Singin' in the Rain 8+1⁄2 Battleship Potemkin L'Avventura The Magnificent Ambersons Vertigo The General The Searchers1992Critics Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Tokyo Story Vertigo The Searchers L'Atalante The Passion of Joan of Arc Pather Panchali Battleship Potemkin 2001: A Space OdysseyDirectors Citizen Kane 8+1⁄2 Raging Bull La Strada L'Atalante The Godfather Modern Times Vertigo The Godfather Part II The Passion of Joan of Arc Rashomon Seven Samurai2002Critics Citizen Kane Vertigo The Rules of the Game The Godfather The Godfather Part II Tokyo Story 2001: A Space Odyssey Battleship Potemkin Sunrise 8+1⁄2 Singin' in the RainDirectors Citizen Kane The Godfather / The Godfather Part II 8+1⁄2 Lawrence of Arabia Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Bicycle Thieves Raging Bull Vertigo Rashomon The Rules of the Game Seven Samurai2012Critics Vertigo Citizen Kane Tokyo Story The Rules of the Game Sunrise 2001: A Space Odyssey The Searchers Man with a Movie Camera The Passion of Joan of Arc 8+1⁄2Directors Tokyo Story 2001: A Space Odyssey Citizen Kane 8+1⁄2 Taxi Driver Apocalypse Now The Godfather Vertigo Mirror Bicycle ThievesRelated The Sight & Sound Greatest Films of All Time 20122014Documentaries Man with a Movie Camera Shoah Sans Soleil Night and Fog The Thin Blue Line Chronicle of a Summer Nanook of the North The Gleaners and I Dont Look Back Grey Gardens Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Rules_of_the_Game&oldid=1016784498"

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