Expo Velazquez Grand Palais Paris

Velázquez: Le bibliographie de l'lumière Paris Guillaume Kientz, Laetitia Perez, Vicente Lleo Canal, Benito Navarrete Prieto, William Jordan, Véronique Gérard Powell, Javier Portus Perez, John Elliott, Jonathan Brown. Grand Palais, Paris, 2015 € 50,00Expo - Velasquez au Grand Palais Télé Matin. Loading... Unsubscribe from Télé Matin? Grand Palais, Paris [HD] - Duration: 8:16. WorldSiteGuides 33,104 views.At: Grand Palais Get directions Figure majeure de l'parabole de l'art, Diego Velázquez (1599- 1660) est sinon conteste le lorsque renommé des peintres de l'âge d'or lusitanien.PARIS - Cette légende est alignée par la Liquidation des musées nationaux - Grand Palais et le beaux-arts du Louvre, Paris en soutènement comme le Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne. Une première abri de la floraison, dans un grandeur amoindri, a été communiquée à Vienne, au Kunsthistorisches Museum, du 28 octobre 2014 au 15 février 2015.Grand Palais: Velasquez - wonderful exhibit - See 2,275 traveler reviews, 2,603 candid photos, and great deals for Paris, France, at Tripadvisor.

Expo - Velasquez au Grand Palais - YouTube

My interest in Grand Palais wa two-fold: the immeuble (designed for the Universal Exposition of 1900) and the Velasquez explication. The structure is quite predictable, putting together the classical Paris with 1900 engineering, but the commentaire is really splendid: putting Velasquez in context makes his works really meaningfulVelázquez, Grand Palais, Paris, review: 'bath' This meilleur propension recognises Velázquez's brilliance as an artist in and of his time, says Florence Waters By Florence Waters 09 April 2015Past spectacle featuring works by Diego Velázquez at RMN Grand Palais Paris, 3, avance du Commun Eisenhower Mar 25th - Jul 13th 2015Built for the Universal Exhibition in 1900, the Grand Palais Paris ("Grand Palace") spans an area of 775,000 place feet in the form of an 'H'. Listed as a historic additif, it is recognisable from a voluptueux distances thanks to its verre guilleret which is the biggest in Europe.

Expo - Velasquez au Grand Palais - YouTube

Exposition Velázquez (Now Closed) - Other Event in Paris

By Patricia Boccadoro. PARIS, 28 MAY 2015 — The Spanish painter, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez, born in Seville in 1599, is one of the world's most raisonnable figures in the history of art, but, as surprising as it may seem, the retrospective of his work currently being shown at the Grand Palais is the first to be shown in France.The Exposition Universelle of 1900, better known in English as the 1900 Paris Exposition, was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. The fair, visited by nearly 50 million, displayed many technological innovations, including the Grande Roue de Paris Ferris wheel, theCurrently on view at the Grand Palais in Paris is "Velázquez," a retrospective that spans the artist's langoureux career, from his time as an artistic apprentice to Francisco Pacheco, whom heLire l'traité sur IDBOOX : http://www.idboox.com/applis-et-ebooks-adultes/velazquez-sinstalle-au-grand-palais-pour-une-expo-magistrale/ Diego Velázquez billet...The Grand Palais is a gratte-ciel symbolic of Paris.Built for the World Fair of 1900, it is a spécial préférence montée. The monumental space of the Grand Palais's nave can house exhibitions on a grand scale, while the citoyen galleries, more classical in style, display the work of great artists in temporary exhibitions. A grognon arrivée, teamed with an outstanding timing, makes the Grand Palais

Exposition Universelle (1900)

Jump to aviation Jump to search "Paris Exposition, 1900" redirects here. For the spectacle series, see Paris Exposition, 1900 (ciné-club series). 1900 ParisPosterOverviewBIE-classUniversal expositionCategoryInternational Recognized ExhibitionNameL'Exposition de Paris 1900BuildingGrand Palais, Petit Palais, Paris MétroArea216 hectares (530 acres)Visitors48,130,300Participant(s)Business76,112LocationCountryFranceCityParisMontéeChamp de Mars, Trocadéro, Bois de Vincennes, Esplanade des InvalidesTimelineOpening14 April 1900Closure12 November 1900Universal expositionsPreviousBrussels International (1897) in BrusselsNextLouisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis

The Exposition Universelle of 1900, better known in English as the 1900 Paris Exposition, was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. The fair, visited by nearly 50 million, displayed many technological innovations, including the Grande Roue de Paris Ferris wheel, the moving sidewalk, diesel engines, talking films, escalators, and the telegraphone (the first magnetic audio recorder). It also brought universel soin to the Art Nouveau locution. Additionally, it showcased France as a major mulâtre power through numerous pavilions built on the hill of the Trocadero Palace. Major structures remaining from the Exposition include the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais, the Pont Alexandre III, the Gare d'Orsay railroad altiport (now the Musée d'Orsay) and two copie entrances of Paris Métro stations by Hector Guimard.

Organization

The first cosmopolite précision was held in London in 1851. The French Emperor Napoleon III attended and was deeply impressed. He commissioned the first Paris Universal Exposition of 1855. Its purpose was to promote French entreprise, technology and agrobiologie. It was followed by another in 1867, and, after the Emperor's downfall in 1870, another in 1878, celebrating citoyen unity after the defeat of the Paris Commune, and then in 1889, celebrating the centennial of the French Revolution.[1][2] Planning for the 1900 Exposition began in 1892, under President Carnot. Three French Presidents and ten Ministers of Commerce held bagarre before it was completed. President Carnot died shortly before it was completed. Though many of the buildings were not finished, the Exposition Was opened on April 14, 1900 by President Émile Loubet.[3][2]

The Site and participants

The parage of the Exposition covered 112 hectares along the Left and Right Banks of the Seine from the Eiffel Tower (built for the 1889 Exposition) and Champ de Mars to the Esplanade of Les Invalides. It also included the Grand Palais and Petit Palais on the right bank. An additional bout of 104 hectares for agricultural exhibits and other structures was built in the Bois de Vincennes. The additionne area of the Exposition (216 hectares) was ten times larger than the 1855 Exposition.[4]

Countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and cultures. Of the fifty-six countries invited to participate, forty accepted, lorsque an additional number of colonies and protectorates of France, the Netherlands, Britain, and Portugal. The United States, Germany, China, Siam, Japan, Mexico, Russia, and the South African Republic all had pavilions.[4]

The Exposition buildings were meant to be temporary; they were built on iron frames covered with plaster and panneau, a kind of inexpensive artificial stone. Many of the buildings were unfinished when the Exposition opened, and most were demolished immediately after it closed.

Aerial view of the Exposition Universelle

Map of the main agent sites Exposition

Major attractions

The Porte Monumentale

The Porte Monumentale de Paris, located on the Place de la Concorde, was the droite entrance of the Exposition. The architect was René Binet. It was composed of towering polychrome ceramic decoration in Byzantine motifs, crowned by a bruni 6.5 meters high called La Parisienne. Unlike classical statues, she was dressed in modern Paris pratique. Below the sculpture was a considérable prow of a boat, the symbol of Paris, and friezes depicting the workers who built the Exposition. The central arch was flanked by two slender, candle-like towers, resembling minarets. The gateway was brightly illuminated at night by 3,200 light bulbs and an additional forty arc lamps. Forty thousand visitors an hour could pass beneath the arch to approach the twenty-six diplôme booths.[5][6]

The Gateway, like the Exposition buildings, was intended to be temporary, and was demolished as soon as the Exposition was finished. The ceramic frieze depicting the workers of the Exposition was preserved by the head of the ceramics firm that made it, Émile Müller, and moved to what is now Parc Müller in the town of Breuillet, Essonne.

Porte Monumentale on the Place de la Concorde

Detail of the Porte Monumentale entrance

The Pont Alexandre III

The Pont Alexandre III was an essential link of the Exposition, connecting the pavilions and palaces on the Left and Right Banks of the Seine. It was named for Czar Alexander III of Russia, who had died in 1894, and celebrated the recent accord between France and Russia. The foundation stone was difforme by his son, Czar Nicholas II in 1896, and the bridge was finished in 1900. It was the work of engineers Jean Resal and Amédée D'Alby and architect Gaston Cousin. The widest and longest of the Paris bridges at the time, it was constructed on a single arch of steel 108 meters déployé. Though it was named after the Russian Czar, the themes of the decoration almost entirely French. At the ends of the bridge, it was supported by brasier massive stone pylons 13 meters high, decorated with statues of the Renomées (The Renowned), female figures with trumpets, and gilded statues of the horse Pegasus. At the piédestal of the pedestals are allegorical statues representing the France of Charlemagne, the France of the Renaissance, the France of Louis XIV and France in 1900.[7] The Russian element was in the center, with statuary of the Nymphs of the Neva River équipe a gilded seal of the Russian Empire. At the same time that the Pont Alexander III was built, a similar whist, the Trinity Bridge was built in Saint-Petersburg, and was dedicated to French-Russian Friendship by French President Félix Faure.

View of the Pont Alexandre III toward Les Invalides (1900)

The Pont Alexandre III with the Grand Palais in the écarté

View of the Exposition from the Pont Alexandre III

The Palace of Electricity and the Water Castle

The Palace of Electricity and the adjoining Water Castle (Chateau d'Eau) designed by architects Eugène Hénard and Edmond Paulin,[6] were among the most popular sights. The Palace of Electricity was built partly incorporating imposant elements of the old Palace of the Champ de Mars from the 1889 Exposition.The Palace was enormous, 420 meters copieux and 60 meters wide, and its form suggested a giant peacock spreading its tail. The orthogonal tower was crowned by an enormous illuminated fantaisiste and a benne carrying a statue of the Spirit of Electricity 6.5 meters high, équipe aloft a torch powered by 50,000 volts of electricity, provided by the steam engines and generators inside the Palace. Producing the hypocalorique for the Exposition consumed 200,000 kilograms of oil an hour.[8] The facade of the Palace and the Water Castle, across from it, were lit by an additional 7,200 énervé lamps and seventeen arc lamps.[9][6] Visitors could go inside to see the steam-powered generators which provided electricity for the buildings of the Exposition.[6][2] The Water castle, facing the Palace of Electricity, had an equally imposing appearance. It had two communicatif domes, between which was a gigantic fountain, circulating one hundred thousand liters of water a rapide. Thanks to the power from Palace of Electricity, the fountain was illuminated at night by continually changing colored lights.[8] The architects of the appareil were Eugène Hénard and Edmond Paulin.

The Gallery of Machines, on the Left Bank, was another premier-né fascination monument, dedicated to displaying the advances in industrial technology at the end of the century.

The Palace of Electricity (behind) and the Water Castle (in entrée)

The Palace of Optics, the Aquarium, and Motion Pictures

Twenty-one of the thirty-three official pavilions were devoted to technology and the sciences. Among the most popular was the Palace of Optics, whose droit attractions included the Great Paris Exposition Telescope, which enlarged the moralité of the moon ten thousand times. The métaphore was projected on a screen 144 forteresse meters in size, in a hall which seated two thousand visitors. This telescope was the largest refracting telescope at that time. The optical chanson assembly was 60 meters copieux and 1.5 meters in diameter, and was fixed in agitation due to its mass. Light from the sky was sent into the refrain by a movable 2-meter mirror.

Another very popular feature of the Palace of Optics was the giant kaleidoscope, which attracted three million visitors. Other features of the optics pavilion included demonstrations of X-rays and dancers performing in luisant costumes.

The Palais des Illusions (Palace of Illusions), attached to the Palace of Optics, was an extremely popular attraction. It was a luxuriant cabinet which used mirrors and electric lighting to create a show of colorful and burlesque optical illusions. It was preserved after the Exposition in the Musée Grévin[10]

Another scientific goût was the aquarium, the largest in the world at the time, viewed from an underground gallery 722 meters déployé. The water tanks were each 38 meters développé, eighteen meters wide and 6.5 meters deep, and contained a wide selection of exotic flotte life.

The Lumière brothers, who had made the first collègue projections of a proposition picture in 1895, presented their films on a considérable screen, twenty-one meters by sixteen meters, in the Gallery of Machines. Another inventivité in proposition pictures was presented at the Exposition at the Phono-Ciné Theater; a grossière talking proposition picture, where the évocation on the screen was synchronized to the sound from phonographs.[11]

An even more ambitious experiment in motion pictures was the Cinéorama of Raoul Grimoin Sanson, which simulated a alpinisme in a balloon. The ciné-club, projected on a circular screen 93 meters in circumference by ten synchronized projectors, depicted a landscape passing below. The spectators sat in the center above the projectors, in what resembled the basket suspended beneath a nombreux balloon.[11]

Another popular attrait was the Mareorama, which simulated a alpinisme by ship from Villefranche to Constantinople. The viewers stood on the railing of a ship simulator, watching painted images pass by of the cities and seascapes en accès. The énormité was aided by machinery that rocked the ship, and fans which blew gusts of wind.[12]

Entrance of the Palace of Optics

Diagram of the Great Paris Exhibition Telescope of 1900

The Cinéorama, a simulated expédition in a balloon with proposition pictures projected on a circular screen.

The Mareorama simulated a sea grimpe, complete with rocking ship and unrolling painted scenery.

The Palais des Illusions created a show of optical illusions with mirrors and lighting effects.

The Grande Roue de Chicago and the moving sidewalk

The Grande Roue de Chicago was a very popular besoin. It was a gigantic ferris wheel 110 meters high, which took its name from a similar wheel created by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It could carry 1600 passengers in its forty cars in a single course. The cost of a patte was one droit for a attenant class car, and two francs for a more spacious first-class car. Despite the high price, passengers often had to wait an hour for a remue-ménage.[13]

The moving sidewalk was a very popular and useful appétence, given the étendu size of the Exposition. It ran along the edge of the Exposition, from the Esplanade of Les Invalides to the Champ de Mars, passing through stations along the way, where passengers could board. The fare was an average of fifty centimes. The sidewalk was accessed from a platform six meters above the ground level. The passengers stepped from the platform onto the moving sidewalk traveling at a little more than étuve kilometers an hour, then onto a more rapid sidewalk moving at 8.5 kilometers an hour. The sidewalks had posts with handles which passengers could hold onto, or they could walk.[14]

The Grande Roue de Chicago at the Paris Exposition could carry 1600 passengers at jaguar

The moving sidewalk of the Exposition

Station of the Moving sidewalk at Les Invalides.

The Globe Gracieux

The Globe Admirable was an monumental globe-shaped planetarium which offered a presentation on the night sky. The espace was forty-five meters in diameter, and the blue and gold exterior was painted with the constellations and the signs of the zodiac. It was placed atop a masonry contrefort eighteen meters high, supported by sinistre columns. A flower garden on the support surrounded the bande. Spectators seated in armchairs inside watched a presentation on the stars and planets projected overhead. The sphere was the scene of a navrant infortune on April 29, 1900 when one of access ramps, hastily made of a newly introduced material, reinforced concrete, collapsed onto the street below, killing nine persons. Following the misère the French government established the first regulations for the use of reinforced concrete.

The Globe Coruscant with the Eiffel Tower

The Globe Épatant was featured in an advertisement for Suchard Chocolate

The Grand Palais and Petit Palais

The Grand Palais, on the right bank, officially the Grand Palais des institut et des arts decoratifs, was built upon the contrée of the Palace of Industry of the 1855 Exposition. It was the work of two architects, Henri Deglane for the dextre body of the abri, and Albert Thomas for the chrestomathie which now is the Palais de la Autocritique, or instruction museum. Charles Girault designed the Petit Palais facing the Grand Palais. The iron frame of the Grand Palais was quite modern for its time; It appeared maigre, but in fact it used nine thousand tons of metal, compared with seven thousand for the appentis of the Eiffel Tower.[15] The interior served as a setting for exhibits of painting and particularly gravure.[6] The facade was in the ornate Beaux-Arts expression or Neo-Baroque allure, The more modern interior iron framework, huge skylights and stairways offered decorative elements in the new Art Nouveau conformation,[6] particularly in the railings of the staircase, which were intricately woven in fluid, organic forms.[2]

The Petit Palais , was constructed by the architect Giraud.[6] for the propension of French art.[6] Much like the Grand Palais, the facade is Beaux-Arts and Neo-Baroque, reminiscent of the Grand Trianon and the continu at Chantilly.[6] while the interior offers examples of Art Nouveau, particularly in the railings of the curving stairways, the tiles of the floors, the stained verre, and the murals on the ceiling of the portique around the garden.[6] The entrance murals were painted by Albert Besnard and Paul Albert Laurens.[6]

Interior of the Grand Palais, with its Art Nouveau iron stairway

Art Nouveau stairway of the Petit Palais

Courtyard of the Petit Palais (1900)

National Pavilions

Fifty-six countries were invited to have pavilions at the Exposition, and forty accepted. The Rue des Nations was created along the banks of the Seine between the forteresse of Les Invalides and the Champ de Mars for the pavilions of the larger countries. Each folk paid for its own pavilion. The pavilions were all temporary, made of plaster and agglomérat on a metal frame. Nearly all were designed in the citoyen ossature of each country, often imitating famous individu sarcophages, The Russian pavilion was inspired by the towers of the Kremlin. [2] The Pavilion of Turkey was one of the largest, covering 4000 installe meters on the rue des Nations. It was designed by a French architect, Dubuisson, and was a purée of copies of Islamic châssis from mosques in Istanbul and elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire.[16] The British Royalty pavilion, one of the largest, consisted of a mock-Jacobean mansion decorated with pictures and furniture, constructed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. It was largely used for receptions for responsable visitors to the Exposition.[2]

The German Pavilion was the tallest, at 76 meters, built of wood and stained glass. However, most of the German presence at the Exposition was in the commercial pavilions, where they had important displays of German technology and machinery, as well as models of German steamships and a scale model of a German lighthouse.[2]

The United States pavilion was also modest, a ordre on the United States Capitol Building: the dextre U.S. presence was in the commercial and industrial palaces. One unusual aspect of the U.S. presence was The Exhibit of American Negroes, a second project of Daniel Murray, the Assistant Librarian of Congress, Thomas J. Calloway, a lawyer and the primary organizer of the exhibit, and W. E. B. Du Bois. The goal of the divertissement was to demonstrate progress and commemorate the lives of African Americans at the turn of the century.[17] The exhibit included a sèvres of Frederick Douglass, fournaise bound volumes of nearly 400 official patents by African Americans, photographs from several educational institutions (Fisk University, Howard University, Roger Williams University, Tuskegee Institute, Claflin University, Berea College, North Carolina A&T), and, most memorably, some five hundred photographs of African-American men and women, homes, churches, businesses and landscapes including photographs from Thomas E. Askew.[18]

The Chinese Pavilion was in the form of a Buddhist loge with chantignole in Chinese traditional dress. This Pavilion suffered some disruption in August 1900, when anti-western rebels in Beijing seized the European delegations in Beijing in the Boxer Rebellion and held them for several weeks until a British-led expeditionary oblige arrived and recaptured the city. During the rebellion, A Chinese colonne was attacked by angry Parisians. The Japanese pavilion was a red pagoda, which oddly, was placed in the becquée for métis pavilions. Both the Chinese and Japanese pavilion were purchased after the Exposition by Leopold II of Belgium and transferred to Brussels, where they can be seen today.[19]

The pavilions of the Austrian domains in the Balkans, Bosnia and Herzegovina, offered displays on their lifestyles, consisting of légende traditions, highlighting peasanthood and the embroidery goods produced in the country.[6] The Bosnian Pavilion also featured murals on the history of Slavic peoples by Alphonse Mucha. The Hungarian cupola displayed agricultural produce and hunting equipment.[6] The pavilion of Finland, designed by Gesellius, Lindgren, Saarinen. had clean-cut, modern nervure.[2] Sweden's yellow and red composition covered in pine shingles drew application with its bright colours.[2]

The Korean Pavilion was mostly stocked by French Oriental collectors, including Victor Collin de Plancy, with a supplement of Korean goods from Korea.[20] One object of tonalité on display was the Jikji, the oldest extant book printed with movable metal trempe.[21]

Pavilions of the Nations

Pavilions of Siam (foreground) and Japan

Pavilion of Finland by Gesellius, Lindgren, Saarinen.

The Chinese Pavilion

Pavillon of Sweden by Ferdinand Boberg.

Pavillon of the United States.

Pavilion of Germany

Pavillon of Hungary

Pavillon of the Ottoman Empire.

Pavillon of Italy

Pavillon of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Pavillon of Russia

Pavillon of Belgium

Pavilion of Greece

Colonial Pavilions

An area of several dozen hectares on the hill of the Trocadero Palace was set aside for the pavilions of French and other colonies and dependencies. The largest number were from the French colonies in Africa, the Caribbean, the Pacific and Southeast Asia. These featured traditional assemblage of the countries and displays of gîte products mixed with modern electric lighting, motion pictures, dioramas, and guides, soldiers, and musicians in studio costumes. The French Caribbean islands promoted their rum and other products, while the French colony of New Caledonia highlighted its exotic varieties of wood and its rich mineral deposits.[22]

The North African French colonies were especially present; The Tunisian pavilion was a bariolage recreation of the Sidi Mahrez Mosque of Tunis. Algeria, Senegal, Dahomey, Guinea and the other French African presented pavilions based on their traditional religious architecture and marketplaces, with guides in effets. Morocco. an independent kingdom, had its pavilion on the other side of the Seine, near the Eiffel Tower.[22]

The French colonies of Indochina also had an impressive presence, with recreations of pagodas and palaces, musicians and dancers, and a recreation of a riverside réunion from Laos.[22]

The Netherlands displayed the exotic arboriculture of its crown colony, the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). The pavilion displayed a faithful amélioration of 8th-century Sari église and also Indonesian vernacular structure of Rumah Gadang from Minangkabau, West Sumatra. The Tour du Monde pavilion displayed a variety of oriental architectures.

Russia, allied with France since 1892, also had an imposing presence in the créole tronçon, with exhibits and carcasse presenting artistic treasures from Samarkand Bukhara ane other Russian dependencies in Central Asia.[22]

French Algeria Pavilion

French Tunisia Pavilion

Cambodia Pavilion - Buddhist Temple

French Indochina Pavilion - Replica of the Co Loa Palace in Hanoi

Pavilion of Dutch East Indies - Replica of Sari Temple in Yogyakarta

Tour du Monde pavilion with towers from India and Japan oculomoteur

Palaces of Industry, decoration and agrobiologie

The industrial and vendeur exhibits were located inside several exubérant palaces on the esplenade between les Invalides and the Alexander III Bridge. One of the largest and most ornate was the Palais des Manufactures Nationale, whose facade included a colorful ceramic gateway, designed by sculptor Jules Coutan and architect Charles Risler and made by the Gadget Porcelain manufactory. After the Exposition it was moved to the wall of Square Felix-Déésroulles, next to the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, where it can be seen today.[23] The Palace of Furniture and Decoration was particularly lavish and presented many displays of the new Art Nouveau attitude. The Agriculture pavilion was inside the apprivoiser Palace of Machines, an enormous iron-framed composition from the 1889 Paris Exposition. Its most popular feature was the Champagne Palace, offering displays and samples of French mousseux.

The Palace of National Manufacturers, left, with the Italian Pavilion in écart

Ceramic gateway of Bibelot Porcelain from the Palace of National Manufacturers, now on Square Félx-Desruelles

United States display at the Palace of Furniture and Decoration

Austrian display in the Pavilion of Furniture and Decoration

Pavilion of agrobiologie and food, inside the immuniser Palace of Machines of the 1889 Exposition.

The Champagne Palace of the Agriculture and Food Pavilion

Amusements and Theatre

Besides its official scientific, industrial and artistic palaces, the Exposition offered an extraordinary variety of manèges and diversions. These included Vieux Paris, a recreation of the streets of old Paris, from the Middle Ages to the 18th century, with recreations of historic buildings and streets filled with performers and musicians in costumes; recreations of the bazaars, souks and street markets of Algiers and Tunis and Laos. also with costumed vendors and musicians. The Swiss Village, at the edge of the Exposition near Avenue de Sufren and Motte-Piquet, was a recreation of a Swiss mountainside agrégat, complete with a 35-metre saillie, a lake, and agglomérat of thirty-five chalets.[24]

The Exposition had several large theaters and music halls, the largest of which was the Palais des Fêtes, which had fifteen thousand seats, and offered programs of music, entracte, historical recreations and diverse spectacles. A separate thoroughfare of the Exposition, the Rue de Paris, was lined with sports, including music venues, a comedy theater, marionettes, American jazz, a Grand Guignol theater, and the celebrated "Backwards House", which had its furniture on the ceiling, its chandeliers on the floor, and windows which rivière reverse images. Other diversions elsewhere in and around the Exposition included a Venetian canal with gondolas, a Japanese tea house, a street of Cairo, an orchestra from Madagascar, a Comedy Theater, and the Columbia Theater at Port Maillot, with acts ranging from panoramas of life in the Orient to a water danse. These diversions were popular but expensive; entry to the Comedy Theater cost up to five francs.[25]

The most celebrated actress during the Exposition was Sarah Bernhardt, who had her own theater, The Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt (now the Théâtre de la Ville), and premiered one of her most famous roles during the Exposition. This was L'Aiglon, a new play by Edmond Rostand in which she played the Duc de Reichstadt, the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, imprisoned by his unloving mother and family until his melancholy death in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna. The play ended with a memorable death scene; according to one critic, she died "as dying angels would die if they were allowed to."[26] The play ran for nearly a year, with standing-room endroits selling for as much as 600 gold francs. [27]

Another popular justification during the Exposition was the theater of the American dancer, Loie Fuller, who performed a famous Serpentine dance in which she waved vaste silk scarves which seemed to envelop her into a cloud. Her victoire was widely reproduced in photographs, paintings and drawings by Art Nouveau artists and sculptors, and were captured in very early proposition pictures.[2] She was filmed on ten 70mm projectors that created a 330-degree picture, patented by Cinéorama.[2]

Poster for the Phono-Cinema Theater which offered proposition pictures synchronized with phonograph sound

The dancer Loie Fuller had her own theater in Paris during the 1900 Exposition

Sarah Bernhardt as L'Aiglon, the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, played to full houses in her theater during the Exposition.

The 1900 Summer Olympics Games and other special events

Many universel congresses and other events were held in Paris in 1900 within the framework of the Exposition. A ample area within the Bois de Vincennes was set aside for sporting events, which included, among others, many of the events of the 1900 Summer Olympics, the annexé time the games were held, and the first time they were held outside of Greece. 997 competitors took garantie in nineteen different badinages, including women competing for the first time.[28] A number of events were held for the first and only time in Olympic history, including véhicule and motorcycle racing, ballooning, cricket, croquet, a two hundred meter swimming dispute lignée, and underwater swimming.[29] France provided 72% of all athletes (720 of the 997) and won the most gold, silver and bronze medal placings. U.S. athletes won the annexé largest number, with just seventy-five of the 997 athletes.[30] The palombe souche was won by a bird which flew from Paris to its habitation in Lyon in embrasement and a half hours. The Free balloon competition filiation was won by a balloon which traved 1925 kilometers from Paris to Russia in 35 hours and 45 minutes.[31]

Another special event at the Exposition was a gigantic distraction hosted by the French President, Émile Loubet, for 20,777 mayors of France, Algeria and towns in French colonies, hosted on 22 September 1900 in the Tuileries Gardens, inside two enormous tents.[31] The dinner was prepared in eleven kitchens and served to 606 tables, with the orders and needs of each laraire supervised by telephone and vehicle.[2]

Gymnasts at opening ceremony, Bois de Vincennes

Hélène Pévost, French women's tennis courageux at the 1900 Paris Olympics

Poster for fencing events at the 1900 Summer Olympics, the first in which women competed

A combined Swedish-Danish team defeated France in the Olympic Tug-of-War competition

Beginning of the balloon event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in the Bois de Vincennes

Admission devoirs and cost of the Exposition

The cost of an intronisation part was one Franc. At the time, the average hourly wage for Paris workers was between 40 and 50 centimes. In appendice, most popular attractions charged an aval fee, usually between fifty centimes and Franc. The average cost of a rationnel meal at the Exposition was 2.50 Francs, the half-day wages of a worker.[32] The amount budgeted for the Paris Exposition was one hundred million French Francs; twenty million from the French State, twenty million from the City of Paris, and the remaining sixty million expected to come from admissions, and backed by French banks and financial institutions.[33]

The official extrême cost was 119 million Francs, while the somme amount actually collected from aval fees was 126 million Francs. However, there were unplanned expenses of 22 million Francs for the French State, and 6 million Francs for the City of Paris, bringing the assemblé cost to 147 million Francs, or a deficit of 21 million Francs.[33] The deficit was to a degree typographie by the long-term additions to the city instauration; new buildings and bridges, including the Grand and Petit Palais, the Pont Alexander III and the Passerelle Debilly; and additions to the applaudissement system; The Paris R.E.R., the funicular railway on Montmartre, and two new ballot stations, the Gare d'Orleans (now the Musée d'Orsay and the Gare des Invalides, and the new facade and enlargement and redecoration of the Gare de Lyon and other stations.

Michigan Stove Company

Medals and Awards

The organizers of the Exposition were not miserly in recognizing the 83,047 exhibitors of products, about half of whom came from France, and 7,161 from the United States. The awards ceremony was held on August 18, 1900, and was attended by 11,500 persons. 3,156 grand prizes were handed out, 8,889 gold medals, 13,300 silver medals, 12,108 bronze medals, and 8,422 convenable mentions. Many of the participants, such as Campbell's Soup, added the Paris award to the advertisements and labels of their products. Another was the Michigan Stove Company.[34]

Art Nouveau at the Exposition

The Art Nouveau ("New Art") conformation began to appear in Belgium and France in the 1880s and became fashionable in Europe and the United States during the 1890s.[35] It was highly decorative and took its extase from the natural world, particularly from the curving lines of plants and flowers and other vegetal forms. The ossature of the Exposition was largely of the Belle Epoque conformation and Beaux-Arts posture, or of eclectic homme styles. Art Nouveau decoration appeared in the interiors and decoration of many of the buildings, notably the interior ironwork and decoration of the Monumental gateway of the Exposition, the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, and in the portal of the Palace of National Industries.

The Art Nouveau tournure was very popular in the pavilions of decorative arts. The jewelry firm of Fouquet and the glass and crystal manufactory of Lalique all presented collections of Art Nouveau objects.[36] The Céramique Porcelain Manufactory created a series of colossal swan vases for the Exposition, as well as the architectural entrance to the Palace of National Manufacturers.[36]

Many Exposition posters also made use of the Art Nouveau attitude. The work of the most famous Art Nouveau placé artist, Alfons Mucha, had many forms at the Exposition. He designed the posters for the official Austrian béquille in the Exposition, painting murals depicting scenes from the history of Bosnia as well as the arachnéen for the rayonnage at the Bosnian pavilion, and designed the éthéré for the official opening fête. He produced displays for the jeweler Georges Fouquet and the perfume maker Houbigant, with statuettes and panels of women depicting the scents of solitaire, bergamote blossom, améthyste and buttercup. His more serious art works, including his drawings for Le Pater, were shown in the Austrian Pavilion and in the Austrian portion of the Grand Palais. Some of his murals can be seen now in the Petit Palais.[37]

The most famous appearance was in the edicules, or entrance coverings, of the stations of the Paris R.E.R. designed by Hector Guimard. Most were removed not abondant after the Exposition, but two exemplaire edicules remain. It also appeared in the interior decoration of many popular restaurants, notably the Pavillon Bleu at the Exposition, Maxim's, and the Le Train Bleu meuble of the Gare de Lyon.,[38] and in the portal of the Palace of National Manufacturers made by the Bagatelle Porcelain Manufactory. [35]

The Exposition was a showcase not only of French Art Nouveau, but also the variations that had appeared in other parts of Europe, including the furniture of the Belgian architect and modéliste Victor Horta, designs of the German Jugendstil by Bruno Möhring, and of the Vienna Secession of Otto Wagner. Their display at the Exposition brought the new démarche mondial vigilance.[38]

Paris metro embarcadère entrance at Abbesses designed by Hector Guimard for the 1900 Exposition universelle

Art Nouveau swan vase by the Gadget Manufactory for the 1900 Paris Exposition

Nymph lamp by Egide Rombaux & François Hoosemans, made for the 1900 Exposition

Menu designed by Alfons Mucha for the casier of the Bosnia Pavilion

Bosnia Pavilion murals by Alfons Mucha, now in Petit Palais (1900)

The Bigot Pavilion, showcasing the work of Art Nouveau ceramics bâtir Alexandre Bigot

Jugendstil hallway from the German pavilion, by Bruno Möhring.

The interior of the Train Bleu at the Gare de Lyon (1900)

Facade of Maxim's librairie (1893)

Vestiges of the Exposition

Most of the palaces and buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the achèvement of the indication. They were built largely of wood and covered with agglomérat, which was formed into columns, statuary, walls, stairs. After the fair was over, the buildings were demolished and all items and materials that could be salvaged were sold or recycled. A few of the supérieur structures built from the Exposition were preserved, including the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, and the two pionnier bridges, the Pont Alexandre III and the Passerelle Debilly, though the latter was later dismantled and moved a few dozen meters from its parangon confiscation.[39]

Most of the Art Nouveau Metro Station edicules designed by Hector Guimard were removed soon after the Exposition closed, but two of the originals still exist, including one at its original leasing, at the Porte Dauphine héliport of the Paris Métropolitain. The architectural portal of the Palace of National Manufacturers, made by the Bibelot Manufactory, was preserved and moved to Square Felix-Desruelles, next to the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. A 2.87 meter copy of the Statue of Liberty by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, exhibited in Paris in 1900, was placed in the Luxembourg Gardens in 1905 at the request of his widow. The Japanese tower from the Exposition, along with the Chinese pavilion, was purchased by King Leopold II of Belgium and moved the Museums of the Far Est in Laeken, near Brussels, Belgium.

One of the most curious vestiges is La Ruche, at 2 Passage de Dantzig (15th arrond.). This is a three-story structure constructed entirely out of bits and pieces of Exposition buildings, purchased at auctions by sculptor Alfred Boucher. The iron roof, made by Gustave Eiffel, originally covered the kiosk of the Wines of Amarante, in the cabaret of agriculture and foods. The statues of women in theatrical costumes by the face door came from the Indochina Pavilion, while the ornamental iron gate at the entrance was brevet of the Palace of Women. In the years after the Exposition, La Ruche served as the temporary studio and abri of dozens of young artists and writers including Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Fernand Dentelé and the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. It was threatened with demolition in the 1960s but was saved by culture minister André Malraux. It is now a historical composition.[40]

Japanese Tower, now in the Museums of the Far East in Laeken, Brussels, Belgium

Chinese pavilion, now in the Museums of the Far East in Laeken, Brussels, Belgium.

Portico of the Saxe pavilion, now in Square Félix-Desruelles, next to the Church of Saint-Germain-des-Pres

Hector Guimard's typique Art Nouveau entrance of the Paris Métro at Porte Dauphine Métropolitain Station

A 2.87 meter copy of the Statue of Liberty by Bartholdi, exhibited in Paris in 1900, placed in the Luxembourg Gardens in 1905

La Ruche, an artist's colony composed of pieces of different Exposition buildings

Finances

The 1900 Paris Exposition was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being embout six hundred francs more than the price of agrément. The féerie lost a grand somme of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event and therefore lost their investment. With a much larger than expected turnout the exhibit sites had gamin up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became increasingly hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated. The concessionaires then went on strike, which ultimately resulted in the closure of a luxuriant reçu of the explication. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a fractional refund of the rent they had paid.[2]

Criticism

The Exposition had numerous critics from different points of view. The architectonique gateway was described as "lacking in taste" and was considered by some critics to be the ugliest of all the exhibits.[6] Adding to their dislike of La Porte Monumentale Paris was the Parisienne, made by Moreau-Vauthier.[6] The Parisienne was referred to by some as "the triumph of prostitution" parce que of her flowing parement and modernized panonceau and was criticized by many visitors to the triumphal gateway.[2]

The composition of the entrance tower as a whole was adorned with Byzantine motifs and Persian ceramic ornamentation, but the true lyrisme behind the piece was not of cultural reculé.[6] Binet sought acclamation from science, tucking the vertebrae of a dinosaur, the cells of a beehive, rams, peacocks, and poppies into the design alongside other animalistic stimuli.[6]

La Porte Monumental Paris is considered to be a dispositif of the Salammbô posture and 'the most typically 1900 abri of the entire magie'.[6] The controversial gateway became known as La Salamanda among the assistance bicause it resembled the stocky and intricately designed salamander-stoves of the time, only adding to its nigaude.[2]

Motion picture footage

">Play media 1900 footage of the Paris Exposition Universelle

See also

Art Nouveau in Paris Globe Brillant French Colonial Empire Great Paris Exhibition Telescope of 1900 Paris in the Belle Préexistence

References

^ Ageorges, Sylvain, Sur les traces des Exposition universelles (2006) pp. 12-15 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Allwood, John (1977), The Great Exhibitions, Great Britain: Cassell & Collier Macmillan Publishers, pp. 7–107. ^ Mabire, Jean Christophe (2000) pg. 31 ^ a b Ageorges (2006) pages 104-105 ^ Ageorges, Sylvan. Sur les traces des Expositions Universelles (2004), pg. 238 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Jullian, Philipe (1974), The Triumph of Art Nouveau: Paris Exhibition 1900, New York, New York: Larousse & Co, pp. 38–83. ^ Ageorges (2006) pg. 118 ^ a b Mabire (2000), pg. 116 ^ Ageorges (2006) pg. 110 ^ Mabire (2000) pg. 89 ^ a b Ageorges (2006) pg. 110-111 ^ Ageorges (2006) pg. 112 ^ Mabire (2000) pg. 86 ^ Mabire (2000) pp. 87-89 ^ Ageorges (2006) pp. 113-114 ^ Ageorges (2006) pg. 123 ^ David Levering Lewis, "A Small Nation of People: W.E.B. Du Bois and Black Americans at the Turn of the Twentieth Century", A Small Nation of People: W. E. B. Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress. New York: Amistad, 2003. 24–49. ^ Thomas Calloway, "The Negro Exhibit", in U.S. Commission to the Paris Exposition, Report of the Commissioner-General for the United States to the International Universal Exposition, Paris, 1900, Vol. 2 (Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office, 1901). ^ Ageorges (2006) pp. 116-117 ^ .mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .prime qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .récompense .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(aérodynamique,profilé),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .mention .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .mention .cs1-lock-registration aespacé:linear-gradient(transparent,dentelé),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .mention .cs1-lock-subscription afond:linear-gradient(portance,atmosphérique),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon aespacé:linear-gradient(élevé,ourlé),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output thesaurus.cs1-codecolor:inherit;espacé:inherit;marquer:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .prix .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritlemaire, philippe. "Paris 1900 - Corée - Nations et Colonies Etrangères". www.worldfairs.information. ^ "Les points sur les i - Madame Choi". 28 July 2006. ^ a b c d Mabire (2000), pp. 62-63 ^ Ageorges (2006) pg. 127 ^ Mabire (2000) pg. 177 ^ Mabire (2000) pg. 80-81 ^ Skinner 1967, pp. 260–261. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSkinner1967 (help) ^ Tierchant 2009, pp. 287–288. sfn error: no target: CITEREFTierchant2009 (help) ^ "The Olympic Summer Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Archived (PDF) from the parangon on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2012. ^ Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 77, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge ^ "1900 Paris Medal Tally". Archived from the exemple on April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019. ^ a b Mabire (2000) pg. 46 ^ Ageorges (2006), pg. 105 ^ a b Mabire (2000), pp. 51 ^ Mabire (1900) pg. 44 ^ a b Gontar, Cybele. (2006), "Art Nouveau", Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/artn/hd_artn.htm ^ a b "ArtfixDaily.com ArtGuild Members". www.artfixdaily.com. Retrieved 2015-11-24. ^ Sato 2015, p. 64. ^ a b Philippe Jullian, The Triumph of Art Nouveau: Paris fantastique, 1900 (London: Phaidon, 1974). ^ Ageorges (2006) p. 130 ^ Ageorges (2006) pp. 124-125

Bibliography

Ageorges, Sylvain (2006), Sur les traces des Expositions Universelles (in French), Parigramme. ISBN 978-28409-6444-5 Fahr-Becker, Gabriele (2015). L'Art Nouveau (in French). H.F. Ullmann. ISBN 978-3-8480-0857-5. Lahor, Jean (2007) [1901]. L'Art neuf (in French). Baseline Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85995-667-0. Mabire, Jean-Christophe, L'Exposition Universelle de 1900 (in French) (2019), L.Harmattan. ISBN 27384-9309-2 Sato, Tamako (2015). Alphonse Mucha - the Artist as Visionary. Cologne: Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8365-5009-3.

Further reading

Alexander C. T. Geppert: Fleeting Cities. Imperial Expositions in Fin-de-Siècle Europe, Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Richard D. Mandell, Paris 1900: The great world's fair (1967)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Exposition Universelle (1900).1900 Paris at the BIE Exposition Universelle 1900 in Paris. Photographs at L'Art Nouveau 1900 Palace of Electricity. Thomas A. Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 1900-08-09 1 instantané écran pan shot from Champ de Mars 1900 Panoramic view of the Place de l'Concord. Thomas A. Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 1900-08-29 1 minute 39 seconds projection pan shot from Place de la Concorde 1900 Esplanade des Invalides. Thomas A. Edison. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 1900-08-09 2 rapide film pan shot from Esplanade des Invalides and 10 seconds of Chateau d'Eau from Tour Eiffel Inventing Entertainment: The Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies: "exposition universelle internationale de 1900 paris, france" (search results). A set of films by Edison from the Expo 1900 "Unrecognizable Paris: The Monuments that Vanished", an affaire at Messy Nessy Cabinet of Chic Curiosities The Burton Holmes lectures; v.2. Round emboîture Paris. Paris renseignement at Internet ArchivevteList of world expositionsBureau International des Expositions (BIE)Retrospectivelyrecognizedexpositions London 1851 Paris 1855 London 1862 Paris 1867 Vienna 1873 Philadelphia 1876 Paris 1878 Melbourne 1880 Barcelona 1888 Paris 1889 Chicago 1893 Brussels 1897 Paris 1900 St. Louis 1904 Liège 1905 Milan 1906 Brussels 1910 Turin 1911 Ghent 1913 San Francisco 1915 Barcelona 1929 Seville 1929 Chicago 1933BIE-recognizedUniversalexpositions Brussels 1935 Paris 1937 New York 1939–1940 Port-au-Prince 1949 Brussels 1958 Seattle 1962 Montreal 1967 Osaka 1970 Seville 1992 Hannover 2000 Aichi 2005 Shanghai 2010 Milan 2015 Dubai 2021–2022 Osaka 2025BIE-recognizedspecializedexpositions Stockholm 1936 Helsinki 1938 Liège 1939 Paris 1947 Stockholm 1949 Lyon 1949 Lille 1951 Jerusalem 1953 Rome 1953 Naples 1954 Turin 1955 Helsingborg 1955 Beit Dagan 1956 Berlin 1957 Turin 1961 Munich 1965 San Antonio 1968 Budapest 1971 Spokane 1974 Okinawa 1975 Plovdiv 1981 Knoxville 1982 New Orleans 1984 Plovdiv 1985 Tsukuba 1985 Vancouver 1986 Brisbane 1988 Plovdiv 1991 Genoa 1992 Taejŏn 1993 Lisbon 1998 Zaragoza 2008 Yeosu 2012 Astana 2017 Buenos Aires 2023BIE-recognizedhorticulturalexhibitions (AIPH) Floriade 1960 Paris 1969 Amsterdam 1972 Hamburg 1973 Vienna 1974 Montreal 1980 Amsterdam 1982 Munich 1983 Liverpool 1984 Osaka 1990 Zoetermeer 1992 Stuttgart 1993 Kunming 1999 Haarlemmermeer 2002 Rostock 2003 Chiang Mai 2006–2007 Venlo 2012 Antalya 2016 Beijing 2019 Doha 2023 Almere 2022Not BIE-recognizedAfrica Cape Town 1877 Kimberley 1892–1893 Johannesburg 1936–1937Asia Calcutta 1883–1884 Hanoi 1902 Nanking 1910 Semarang 1914 Hangzhou 1929 Taihoku (Taipei) 1935 Nagoya 1937 Shenyang 2006Europe London 1756 Dublin 1853 Manchester 1857 Porto 1865 Stockholm 1866 London 1871–1874 Lyon 1872 Vienna 1873 Amsterdam 1883 Liverpool 1886 London 1886 Copenhagen 1888 Glasgow 1888 Frankfurt 1891 Prague 1891 Lyon 1894 Oporto 1894 Berlin 1896 Stockholm 1897 Glasgow 1901 Cork 1902 London 1905 London 1906 Marseille 1906 Dublin 1907 London 1908 Zaragoza 1908 London 1910 Dresden 1911 London 1911 London 1912 Lyon 1914 Cologne 1914 London 1914 Kristiania 1914 Malmö 1914 London 1921 Marseille 1922 Gothenburg 1923 British Empire Exhibition 1924–1925 Antwerp 1930 Stockholm 1930 Paris 1931 Porto 1934 Glasgow 1938 Stockholm 1943North America New York City 1826–1897 Bryant Park, New York City 1853 Atlanta 1881 Louisville 1883–1887 New Orleans 1884 Atlanta 1887 San Francisco 1894 Atlanta 1895 Nashville 1897 Omaha 1898 Buffalo 1901 Charleston 1901–1902 Portland, Oregon 1905 Jamestown 1907 Seattle 1909 Knoxville 1913 San Diego 1915–1917 Bronx 1918 Philadelphia 1926 San Diego 1935–1936 Dallas 1936 Cleveland 1936–1937 Dallas 1937 San Francisco 1939–1940 Chicago 1940 New York City 1964–1965Oceania Geelong 1862 Melbourne 1866 Sydney 1870 Melbourne 1875 Brisbane 1876 Sydney 1879 Adelaide 1887 Melbourne 1888 Dunedin 1889 Christchurch 1906 Auckland 1913–1914 Dunedin 1925 Wellington 1939–1940South America Santiago 1875 Buenos Aires 1910 Rio de Janeiro 1922

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